In SQL 2012 can you replicate sequence objects, and if so do changes to the sequence (including consumption of values) get replicated?
If not is there a good reason why this was not included?
No, sequences are not valid as articles for any type of replication.
I don't have a good reason for you (yet). But I'm curious what the purpose of replicating the sequence itself would be. If your intention is to utilize the same sequence on the subscriber to populate other tables there that aren't replicated, this wouldn't really work unless you had some way to notify the source sequence that you've used some values. You could always call a stored procedure on the publisher that generates a new sequence value there, and use it on the subscriber.