I asked the same thing about a specific NoSql engine (Big Table) on SO.
It seems that Big Table doesn't support
NOT IN queries?
Is that possible in any other NoSQL databases? Will it ever be possible on NoSQL databases?
The answer to your question is "no." And no, I don't think it will ever be possible at least in any helpful way.
Relational databases are designed to operate over sets of tuples. Non-relational databases are not. This means that one of the key tradeoffs is being able to have very fast access (with "good enough" consistency controls) to single pieces of data in NoSQL vs high-end consistency controls and set-based math on the relational side.
So the answer is "no, no, and no."
If you want relational math, pick a relational database.