I accidentally dropped a MySQL database on my server. Are there any ways to recover a dropped database?
There's no easy way to break this to you. It doesn't matter if you dropped a db via phpmyadmin or the commandline. It is gone.
Human error is one reason to have a good backup regimen.
I'm not religious but I'll say a prayer hoping it wasn't anything too important.
Depends on your setup. It is possible to restore if you setup your system correctly. If you have a backup you can restore it. and then apply the binary logs up to the point just before you dropped the table.
I suggest you do this on another server, once you have the table restored you can use mysqldump to extract it and import back to your production server. This will not be a fast restore, but you can recover the data.
If you don't know what you are doing I would suggest openning a support contract with one of the mysql consulting companies (pythian, percona, palamino are probably the best) and have them help you with this.
I wish you the best of luck