I know that SQL Server doesn't support using a view as the reference for a foreign key constraint, is there a reason (i.e. something to do with the relational model) this is the case? It seems like it would be useful....
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There's no fundamental problem with doing this, since tables and views are both relation variables in the relational model. Foreign key constraints are just a particular subclass of general constraints, which standard SQL implements using
According to this Connect item it's simply a matter of prioritization. If you would find this feature useful, vote for the item and particularly add details of your use case in the comments.