It depends on why you are creating the temporary tables in MySQL.
Frequently, people that are creating temporary tables in other databases are doing so in order to work around limitations that don't exist in Oracle where readers don't block writers and writers don't block readers. In other databases, you commonly copy data from a permanent table to a temporary table so that your process doesn't block some other process that needs the same data. Since Oracle provides multi-version read consistency, however, this isn't necessary (or beneficial) in Oracle-- your process can process the data sitting in the real tables without worrying that it is going to block someone else. If that's the situation you're in, the proper response is simply to remove the temporary tables and process the data from the permanent tables.
Assuming that you really need a temporary copy of the data, you can create global temporary tables. You would create these tables outside of your code just like a permanent table and use them just like a permanent table inside your code. The global temporary table ensures that each session can only see the data that session has inserted. The only difference is that you're not dropping and recreating the structure of the table inside your procedure.
Another alternative would be to pull the data into a PL/SQL collection that you work with rather than using a temporary table. PL/SQL collections are stored in the server's PGA (one of Oracle's memory structures) so you generally want to limit the size of the collection particularly if there is a lot of data to process or there could be many sessions processing data simultaneously. You can do something like
TYPE emp_tbl IS TABLE OF emp%rowtype;
IS SELECT *
-- Fetch 10 rows at a time from the cursor into the collection.
-- You'd realistically want a larger limit, something between 100 and 1000 generally
BULK COLLECT INTO l_emps
EXIT WHEN l_emps.COUNT = 0;
-- An example of manipulating the collection in memory
FOR i IN 1 .. l_emps.COUNT
l_emps(i).sal := l_emps(i).sal * 2;
-- And an example of using the collection to update a table
FORALL i IN 1 .. l_emps.COUNT
SET sal = l_emps(i).sal
WHERE empno = l_emps(i).empno;
Of course, in the example above, it would be far simpler (and more efficient) to simply issue an
UPDATE statement that would double every employee's salary.