Take the 2-minute tour ×
Database Administrators Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for database professionals who wish to improve their database skills and learn from others in the community. It's 100% free, no registration required.

I have been tasked with writing an update query to update a table with more than 850 million rows of data. Here are the table structures:

Source Tables :

    CREATE TABLE [dbo].[SourceTable1](
    [ProdClassID] [varchar](10) NOT NULL,
    [PriceListDate] [varchar](8) NOT NULL,
    [PriceListVersion] [smallint] NOT NULL,
    [MarketID] [varchar](10) NOT NULL,
    [ModelID] [varchar](20) NOT NULL,
    [VariantId] [varchar](20) NOT NULL,
    [VariantType] [tinyint] NULL,
    [Visibility] [tinyint] NULL,
 CONSTRAINT [PK_SourceTable1] PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED 
(
    [VariantId] ASC,
    [ModelID] ASC,
    [MarketID] ASC,
    [ProdClassID] ASC,
    [PriceListDate] ASC,
    [PriceListVersion] ASC
)WITH (PAD_INDEX  = OFF, STATISTICS_NORECOMPUTE  = OFF, 
IGNORE_DUP_KEY = OFF, ALLOW_ROW_LOCKS  = ON, 
ALLOW_PAGE_LOCKS  = ON, FILLFACTOR = 90)
    )

CREATE TABLE [dbo].[SourceTable2](
    [Id] [uniqueidentifier] NOT NULL,
    [ProdClassID] [varchar](10) NULL,
    [PriceListDate] [varchar](8) NULL,
    [PriceListVersion] [smallint] NULL,
    [MarketID] [varchar](10) NULL,
    [ModelID] [varchar](20) NULL,
 CONSTRAINT [PK_SourceTable2] PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED 
(
    [Id] ASC
)WITH (PAD_INDEX  = OFF, STATISTICS_NORECOMPUTE  = OFF, 
IGNORE_DUP_KEY = OFF, ALLOW_ROW_LOCKS  = ON, 
ALLOW_PAGE_LOCKS  = ON, FILLFACTOR = 91) ON [PRIMARY]
    ) ON [PRIMARY] TEXTIMAGE_ON [PRIMARY]

SourceTable1 contains 52 million rows of data and SourceTable2 contains 400,000 rows of data.

Here is the TargetTable structure

CREATE TABLE [dbo].[TargetTable](
    [ChassisSpecificationId] [uniqueidentifier] NOT NULL,
    [VariantId] [varchar](20) NOT NULL,
    [VariantType] [tinyint] NULL,
    [Visibility] [tinyint] NULL,
 CONSTRAINT [PK_TargetTable] PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED 
(
    [ChassisSpecificationId] ASC,
    [VariantId] ASC
    )WITH (PAD_INDEX  = OFF, STATISTICS_NORECOMPUTE  = OFF, IGNORE_DUP_KEY = OFF, 
ALLOW_ROW_LOCKS  = ON, ALLOW_PAGE_LOCKS  = ON, FILLFACTOR = 71) ON [PRIMARY]
    ) ON [PRIMARY]

The relationship between these tables are as follows:

  • SourceTable1.VariantID is related to TargetTable.VariantID
  • SourceTable2.ID is related to TargetTable.ChassisSpecificationId

The update requirement is as follows:

  1. Get the values for VariantType and Visibility from SourceTable1 for each VariantID, having the maximum value in the PriceListVersion column.
  2. Get the value of the ID column from SourceTable2 where the values of ModelID, ProdClassID, PriceListDate and MarketID match with that of SourceTable1.
  3. Now update the TargetTable with the values for VariantType and Visibility where the ChassisspecificationID matches SourceTable2.ID and VariantID matches SourceTable1.VariantID

The challenge is to do this update on live production, with minimum locking. Here is the query I have put together.

-- Check if Temp table already exists and drop if it does
IF EXISTS(
        SELECT NULL 
        FROM tempdb.sys.tables
        WHERE name LIKE '#CSpec%'
      )
BEGIN
    DROP TABLE #CSpec;
END;

-- Create Temp table to assign sequence numbers
CREATE Table #CSpec
(
    RowID int,
    ID uniqueidentifier,
    PriceListDate VarChar(8),
    ProdClassID VarChar(10),
    ModelID VarChar(20),
    MarketID Varchar(10)
 );

-- Populate temp table 
INSERT INTO #CSpec
SELECT ROW_NUMBER() OVER (ORDER BY MarketID) RowID,
       CS.id, 
       CS.pricelistdate, 
       CS.prodclassid, 
       CS.modelid, 
       CS.marketid 
FROM   dbo.SourceTable2 CS 
WHERE CS.MarketID IS NOT NULL;

-- Declare variables to hold values used for updates
DECLARE @min            int, 
        @max            int,
        @ID             uniqueidentifier,
        @PriceListDate  varchar(8),
        @ProdClassID    varchar(10),
        @ModelID        varchar(20),
        @MarketID       varchar(10);
-- Set minimum and maximum values for looping
SET @min = 1;
SET @max = (SELECT MAX(RowID) From #CSpec);

-- Populate other variables in a loop
WHILE @min <= @max
BEGIN
    SELECT 
        @ID = ID,
        @PriceListDate = PriceListDate,
        @ProdClassID = ProdClassID,
        @ModelID = ModelID,
        @MarketID = MarketID
    FROM #CSpec
    WHERE RowID = @min;  

-- Use CTE to get relevant values from SourceTable1 
    ;WITH Variant_CTE AS
    (
    SELECT  V.variantid, 
            V.varianttype, 
            V.visibility,
            MAX(V.PriceListVersion) LatestPriceVersion
    FROM    SourceTable1 V 
    WHERE       V.ModelID = @ModelID
            AND V.ProdClassID = @ProdClassID
            AND V.PriceListDate = @PriceListDate
            AND V.MarketID = @MarketID
    GROUP BY
            V.variantid, 
            V.varianttype, 
            V.visibility
    )

-- Update the TargetTable with the values obtained in the CTE
    UPDATE      SV 
        SET     SV.VariantType = VC.VariantType, 
                SV.Visibility = VC.Visibility
    FROM        spec_variant SV 
    INNER JOIN  TargetTable VC
    ON          SV.VariantId = VC.VariantId
    WHERE       SV.ChassisSpecificationId = @ID
                AND SV.VariantType IS NULL
                AND SV.Visibility IS NULL;

    -- Increment the value of loop variable
    SET @min = @min+1;
END
-- Clean up
DROP TABLE #CSpec

It takes about 30 seconds when I set the limit of iterations to 10, by hardcoding the value of @max variable. However, when I increase the limit to 50 iterations, then it takes almost 4 minutes to complete. I am concerned that the execution time taken for 400,000 iterations will run into multiple days on production. However, that might still be acceptable, if the TargetTable does not get locked down, preventing users from accessing it.

All inputs are welcome.

Thanks, Raj

share|improve this question

migrated from stackoverflow.com Apr 22 '13 at 8:04

This question came from our site for professional and enthusiast programmers.

    
2 people voted for closing this question. Care to explain why? –  Raj Apr 22 '13 at 6:40
1  
People did not vote for closing but for migration to DBA.SE site where there are better chances you get an expert answer. –  ypercube Apr 22 '13 at 8:14
    
Thanks. I did not know that :) –  Raj Apr 22 '13 at 8:16
2  
Some other things to consider: Stats and Batch updates. See an informative article here on the MSDN blog SQL Repl. –  Marian Apr 22 '13 at 14:01
1  
Thanks a lot for all the inputs guys. I was able to tweak the script some more, create relevant indexes and thanks to @Marian's link, I was also able to use multiple sessions in parallel and just completed updating the test DB with 175 million rows in about 40 minutes. That is a giant improvement from the 9.5 hours it was taking my predecessor on the same Test DB. Much appreciated. –  Raj Apr 23 '13 at 8:22

2 Answers 2

up vote 5 down vote accepted

To speed things up, you could try

  • Adding a primary key to #CSpec.RowID so you don't scan it every iteration
  • Change the CTE to a temp table with suitable PK. See next point too
  • Add an index on SourceTable1 to match the CTE WHERE clause: currently the PK will be scanned, meaning all SourceTable1 rows will be scanned every iteration. All 52 million rows
  • SourceTable2.MarketID also does not have an index, but I wouldn't worry about this because it is scanned once only (as I understand it)

The query plans here should show a lot of scans because you have poor indexes for the operations you are doing.

Target table indexing appears OK

Another observation: uniqueidentifier and varchar are bad choices for clustered indexes (your PKs here): too wide, not increasing, overhead of collection comparisons at least

Edit, another observation (thanks to @Marian)

Your clustered index is wide generally. Every non-clustered index points to the clustered index, which means a huge NC index too

You could probably achieve the same result by reordering the clustered PK.

share|improve this answer
    
Thanks for the answer. Makes sense adding PK to the #CSpec temp table. I decided on using a CTE as each iteration only updates an average of 16 - 20 rows of data. Index on SourceTable1 created. As for your observations for choice of PKs, I agree. Sadly this is inherited and changes to the DB schema may not be possible. Thanks. –  Raj Apr 22 '13 at 8:32

Posting the final SQL for this process, for the benefit of the community

/********************************************************************************************************************
*  Notes: Since this approach executes in a loop inside an explicit transaction, locks will be obtained and         *
*  released for each iteration, thus minimizing impact on other users accessing the same table at the same time.    *
*                                                                                                                   *
*  This process would update 10,000 to 12,000 rows per second, and thus is estimated to run for approximately       *
*  23 hours on production with 850 million rows in Spec_Variant table. However, we can harness the power of         *
*  mutli-threading, by statically defining the @min and @max variable values and then running multiple sessions     *
*  of this update. This will reduce the time required to 23 hours divided by the number of sessions. In other words,* 
*  if we run 8 sessions of this update query parallelly, it should complete in 23/8 ~ 3 hours. If multiple sessions *
*  are possible, then the temp table needs to be created as a global temp table and populated in its own session.   *
*  Additionally, each sessions @max and @min values need to be hard coded,for example, 1-50000, 50001-100000, etc.  *
*********************************************************************************************************************/

-- However, to make this possible, we will have to use...

SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SNAPSHOT;

-- ... this would be the ideal setting to minimize locking. Before using this, we will need to execute
-- ALTER DATABASE MyDatabase
-- SET ALLOW_SNAPSHOT_ISOLATION ON

-- Alternately, if access rights permit, executing 
-- DBCC TRACEON(1211,-1) will disable lock escalation. Else, the TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL can be left at 
-- default (READ COMMITTED), but will not allow us to run multiple sessions.

SET NOCOUNT ON;

-- Check if Temp table already exists and drop if it does
IF EXISTS(
        SELECT NULL 
        FROM tempdb.sys.tables
        WHERE name LIKE '#CSpec%'
      )
BEGIN
    DROP TABLE #CSpec;
END;

-- Create Temp table to assign sequence numbers
CREATE Table #CSpec
    (
    RowID           int PRIMARY KEY,
    ID              uniqueidentifier,
    PriceListDate   VarChar(8),
    ProdClassID     VarChar(10),
    ModelID         VarChar(20),
    MarketID        Varchar(10)
    );

-- Populate temp table 
INSERT INTO #CSpec
SELECT ROW_NUMBER() OVER (ORDER BY MarketID) RowID,
       CS.id, 
       CS.pricelistdate, 
       CS.prodclassid, 
       CS.modelid, 
       CS.marketid 
FROM   dbo.SourceTable2 CS 
WHERE CS.MarketID IS NOT NULL
-- This AND clause will allow this process to be run multiple times in timed sessions and will prevent
-- an attempt to update rows that were already updated in an earlier session. If the process will be run 
-- only once from start to finish, this block can be commented out
AND CS.Id NOT IN 
            (
                SELECT DISTINCT ChassisSpecificationId
                FROM TargetTable
                WHERE VariantType IS NOT NULL AND Visibility IS NOT NULL
            );

-- Declare variables to hold values used for updates
DECLARE @min            int, 
        @max            int,
        @ID             uniqueidentifier,
        @PriceListDate  varchar(8),
        @ProdClassID    varchar(10),
        @ModelID        varchar(20),
        @MarketID       varchar(10);

-- Set minimum and maximum values for looping. See comments in the notes section on top.
SELECT @min = 1,@max = MAX(RowID) From #CSpec;

-- Populate other variables in a loop
WHILE @min <= @max
BEGIN
    BEGIN TRY
    BEGIN TRANSACTION;
    SELECT 
        @ID = ID,
        @PriceListDate = PriceListDate,
        @ProdClassID = ProdClassID,
        @ModelID = ModelID,
        @MarketID = MarketID
    FROM #CSpec
    WHERE RowID = @min;  

-- Use CTE to get relevant values from SourceTable1
    ;WITH CTE AS
    (
    SELECT  V.variantid, 
            V.varianttype, 
            V.visibility,
            MAX(V.PriceListVersion) LatestPriceVersion
    FROM    SourceTable1 V 
    WHERE       V.ModelID = @ModelID
            AND V.ProdClassID = @ProdClassID
            AND V.PriceListDate = @PriceListDate
            AND V.MarketID = @MarketID
    GROUP BY
            V.variantid, 
            V.varianttype, 
            V.visibility
    )

-- Update the TargetTable with the values obtained in the CTE
    UPDATE      SV 
    SET         SV.VariantType = VC.VariantType, 
                SV.Visibility = VC.Visibility
    FROM        spec_variant SV 
    INNER JOIN  CTE VC
    ON          SV.VariantId = VC.VariantId
    WHERE       SV.ChassisSpecificationId = @ID
                AND SV.VariantType IS NULL
                AND SV.Visibility IS NULL;

   -- Check for errors and commit transaction
        IF @@ERROR = 0
            BEGIN
                COMMIT TRANSACTION;
                 -- Increment the value of loop variable
                SET @min = @min+1;
            END
    END TRY
    BEGIN CATCH
        IF @@ERROR <> 0
            BEGIN
                ROLLBACK;
            END
    END CATCH
END
-- Clean up
SET NOCOUNT OFF; 
DROP TABLE #CSpec;
share|improve this answer

Your Answer

 
discard

By posting your answer, you agree to the privacy policy and terms of service.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.