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I am doing a School Management System in php using Mysql DB. I am stuck in my Project. Please anybody suggest what I am doing wrong.

I have two tables in my database; one is to store Students records another one is to store their attendance day wise

Now I want to display a report of all students in particular class for the current month whether they were present or absent. But I am capturing only Absent students details only in attendance table.

I have written sql query to display the result here is:

SELECT tab.class, attend, DATE, ta.rollno, ta.StdNm 
FROM tbl_absentees tab, tbl_admission ta
WHERE ta.Cls = class
  AND ta.rollno = tab.rollno
  AND class =22
  AND attend =  'A'
  AND DATE =  '2013-06-07';

The result is:

Class Attend RollNo StudentName

But I want to display in 31 days table manner by taking only Date in attendance table if attend=A display A for absent Days otherwise Display 'P' for remaining days

How can I do this in mysql? Can anyone suggest/give me an idea to achieve this.

Sorry for misclarification in my question. Actually I want to display an attendance report for a particular month where data comes from two tables:

  • the first table consists of StudentName, RollNo, Class
  • the second table consists of Date, Status, RollNo, Class

Now I want to display report like this.

share|improve this question
up vote 13 down vote accepted

This type of rotation of data from columns to rows is known as a PIVOT. MySQL does not have a pivot function but you can use an aggregate function with a CASE expression to get the result.

My first suggestion would be to determine if you have a calendar table or a table that contains all of the dates that you want to display. If not, then I would suggest creating one similar to the following:

CREATE TABLE calendar (`Date` datetime) ;

INSERT INTO calendar (`Date`)
VALUES
    ('2013-06-01 00:00:00'),
    ('2013-06-02 00:00:00'),
    ('2013-06-03 00:00:00'),
    ('2013-06-04 00:00:00'),
    ('2013-06-05 00:00:00'),
    ('2013-06-06 00:00:00'),
    ('2013-06-07 00:00:00'),
    ('2013-06-08 00:00:00'),
    ('2013-06-09 00:00:00'),
    ('2013-06-10 00:00:00');

This will make it possible for you to generate a list of all of the dates that you want to display.

Second, you will need to generate the list of each student and each date. You can do this by using a CROSS JOIN between your tbl_admission and the calendar table:

select c.date, a.studentname, a.rollno, a.class
from calendar c
cross join tbl_admission a;

See Demo. Once you have this list, then you can use a LEFT JOIN to your existing tbl_absentees table to get the result:

select 
  ca.studentname,
  ca.rollno,
  ca.class,
  max(case when ca.date = '2013-06-01' then coalesce(p.status, 'P') end) `2013-06-01`,
  max(case when ca.date = '2013-06-02' then coalesce(p.status, 'P') end) `2013-06-02`,
  max(case when ca.date = '2013-06-03' then coalesce(p.status, 'P') end) `2013-06-03`,
  max(case when ca.date = '2013-06-04' then coalesce(p.status, 'P') end) `2013-06-04`,
  max(case when ca.date = '2013-06-05' then coalesce(p.status, 'P') end) `2013-06-05`,
  max(case when ca.date = '2013-06-06' then coalesce(p.status, 'P') end) `2013-06-06`,
  max(case when ca.date = '2013-06-07' then coalesce(p.status, 'P') end) `2013-06-07`,
  max(case when ca.date = '2013-06-08' then coalesce(p.status, 'P') end) `2013-06-08`,
  max(case when ca.date = '2013-06-08' then coalesce(p.status, 'P') end) `2013-06-09`,
  max(case when ca.date = '2013-06-10' then coalesce(p.status, 'P') end) `2013-06-10`
from
(
  select c.date, a.studentname, a.rollno, a.class
  from calendar c
  cross join tbl_admission a
) ca
left join tbl_absentees p
  on ca.rollno = p.rollno
  and ca.date = p.date
group by ca.studentname, ca.rollno, ca.class
order by ca.rollno;

See SQL Fiddle with Demo. Of course for your request, you most likely want to query the data based on a date range so you will not want to hard-code the values. If that is the case, then you will need to look at using a prepared statement to generate dynamic SQL:

SET @sql = NULL;
SELECT
  GROUP_CONCAT(DISTINCT
    CONCAT(
      'max(CASE WHEN ca.date = ''',
      date_format(date, '%Y-%m-%d'),
      ''' THEN coalesce(p.status, ''P'') END) AS `',
      date_format(date, '%Y-%m-%d'), '`'
    )
  ) INTO @sql
FROM calendar
where date>='2013-06-01'
  and date <= '2013-06-05';

SET @sql 
  = CONCAT('SELECT ca.studentname,
              ca.rollno,
              ca.class, ', @sql, ' 
            from
            (
              select c.date, a.studentname, a.rollno, a.class
              from calendar c
              cross join tbl_admission a
            ) ca
            left join tbl_absentees p
              on ca.rollno = p.rollno
              and ca.date = p.date
            where ca.date>=''2013-06-01''
              and ca.date <= ''2013-06-05''
            group by ca.studentname, ca.rollno, ca.class
            order by ca.rollno');

PREPARE stmt FROM @sql;
EXECUTE stmt;
DEALLOCATE PREPARE stmt;

See SQL Fiddle with Demo. Both of these queries will give a result similar to:

| STUDENTNAME | ROLLNO | CLASS | 2013-06-01 | 2013-06-02 | 2013-06-03 | 2013-06-04 | 2013-06-05 | 2013-06-06 | 2013-06-07 | 2013-06-08 | 2013-06-09 | 2013-06-10 |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|       Naren |      1 |    22 |          A |          A |          A |          A |          P |          P |          P |          P |          P |          P |
|       Srinu |      2 |    22 |          P |          P |          P |          P |          P |          P |          P |          P |          P |          P |
|        Blah |      3 |    22 |          A |          P |          P |          P |          P |          P |          P |          P |          P |          P |
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protected by Community Jan 29 '15 at 10:57

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