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I have SQL Server 2008 R2 with 323 databases consuming some 14 GB on my C: drive, a fast SSD.

Because I want to reclaim some space on my C: drive, I would like to move them to my D: drive.

I have found this MSDN article, but that seems to be the procedure to move only one database.

Is there an automatic way or script to move all my databases at once?

share|improve this question

I use Powershell for this sort of work. In fact, I use Powershell to generate Powershell, because I have a script that will loop through my databases and generate my final move script. You will have to move each database one at a time, but this will at least help you script 90% of the work.

#load SMO
Add-PSSnapin SqlServerCmdletSnapin100
Add-PSSnapin SqlServerProviderSnapin100
#Added line if using SQL Server 2012 or later
Import-module SQLPS
[System.Reflection.Assembly]::LoadWithPartialName('Microsoft.SqlServer.SMO') | out-null

#Create server object and output filename 
$server = New-Object -TypeName Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server "localhost"
$outputfile=([Environment]::GetFolderPath("MyDocuments"))+"\FileMover.ps1"

#set this for your new location
$newloc="X:\NewDBLocation"

#get your databases
$db_list=$server.Databases

#build initial script components
"Add-PSSnapin SqlServerCmdletSnapin100" > $outputfile
"Add-PSSnapin SqlServerProviderSnapin100" >> $outputfile
"Import-Module SQLPS" >> $outputfile 
"[System.Reflection.Assembly]::LoadWithPartialName('Microsoft.SqlServer.SMO') `"localhost`" | out-null" >> $outputfile
"`$server = New-Object -TypeName Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server " >> $outputfile

foreach($db_build in $db_list)
{
    #only process user databases
    if(!($db_build.IsSystemObject))
    {
        #script out all the file moves
        "#----------------------------------------------------------------------" >> $outputfile
        "`$db=`$server.Databases[`""+$db_build.Name+"`"]" >> $outputfile

        $dbchange = @()
        $robocpy =@()
        foreach ($fg in $db_build.Filegroups)
        {
            foreach($file in $fg.Files)
            {
                $shortfile=$file.Filename.Substring($file.Filename.LastIndexOf('\')+1)
                $oldloc=$file.Filename.Substring(0,$file.Filename.LastIndexOf('\'))
                $dbchange+="`$db.FileGroups[`""+$fg.Name+"`"].Files[`""+$file.Name+"`"].Filename=`"$newloc`\"+$shortfile+"`""
                $robocpy+="ROBOCOPY `"$oldloc`" `"$newloc`" $shortfile /copyall /mov"

            }
        }

        foreach($logfile in $db_build.LogFiles)
        {
            $shortfile=$logfile.Filename.Substring($logfile.Filename.LastIndexOf('\')+1)
            $oldloc=$logfile.Filename.Substring(0,$logfile.Filename.LastIndexOf('\'))
            $dbchange+="`$db.LogFiles[`""+$logfile.Name+"`"].Filename=`"$newloc`\"+$shortfile+"`""
            $robocpy+="ROBOCOPY `"$oldloc`" `"$newloc`" $shortfile /copyall /mov"
        }

        $dbchange+="`$db.Alter()" 
        $dbchange+="Invoke-Sqlcmd -Query `"ALTER DATABASE ["+$db_build.Name+"] SET OFFLINE WITH ROLLBACK IMMEDIATE;`" -Database `"master`"" 

        $dbchange >> $outputfile
        $robocpy >> $outputfile

        "Invoke-Sqlcmd -Query `"ALTER DATABASE ["+$db_build.Name+"] SET ONLINE;`" -Database `"master`""  >> $outputfile
    }
}

The output will be a FileMover.ps1 script in your MyDocuments folder that looks something like this:

    Add-PSSnapin SqlServerCmdletSnapin100
    Add-PSSnapin SqlServerProviderSnapin100
    Import-Module SQLPS
    [System.Reflection.Assembly]::LoadWithPartialName('Microsoft.SqlServer.SMO') "localhost" | out-null
    $server = New-Object -TypeName Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server 
    #----------------------------------------------------------------------
    $db=$server.Databases["AdventureWorks2012"]
    $db.FileGroups["PRIMARY"].Files["AdventureWorks2012_Data"].Filename="X:\NewDBLocation\AdventureWorks2012_Data.mdf"
    $db.LogFiles["AdventureWorks2012_Log"].Filename="X:\NewDBLocation\AdventureWorks2012_log.ldf"
    $db.Alter()
    Invoke-Sqlcmd -Query "ALTER DATABASE [AdventureWorks2012] SET OFFLINE WITH ROLLBACK IMMEDIATE;" -Database "master"
    ROBOCOPY "C:\DBData" "X:\NewDBLocation" AdventureWorks2012_Data.mdf /copyall /mov
    ROBOCOPY "C:\DBFiles\Log" "X:\NewDBLocation" AdventureWorks2012_log.ldf /copyall /mov
    Invoke-Sqlcmd -Query "ALTER DATABASE [AdventureWorks2012] SET ONLINE;" -Database "master"
    #----------------------------------------------------------------------
    $db=$server.Databases["AdventureWorks2012DW"]
    $db.FileGroups["PRIMARY"].Files["AdventureWorksDW2012_Data"].Filename="X:\NewDBLocation\AdventureWorksDW2012_Data.mdf"
    $db.LogFiles["AdventureWorksDW2012_Log"].Filename="X:\NewDBLocation\AdventureWorks2012DW_log.ldf"
    $db.Alter()
    Invoke-Sqlcmd -Query "ALTER DATABASE [AdventureWorks2012DW] SET OFFLINE WITH ROLLBACK IMMEDIATE;" -Database "master"
    ROBOCOPY "C:\DBData" "X:\NewDBLocation" AdventureWorksDW2012_Data.mdf /copyall /mov
    ROBOCOPY "C:\DBData" "X:\NewDBLocation" AdventureWorks2012DW_log.ldf /copyall /mov
    Invoke-Sqlcmd -Query "ALTER DATABASE [AdventureWorks2012DW] SET ONLINE;" -Database "master"

...

Caveats

  • The script moves all files, no matter their source location, to the same destination. You will need to tweak for custom location paths.
  • The script is designed to run on the server you need to move the files on (see all usages of localhost'). Replace localhost with your instance name if you run this remotely.
  • The user you run this as needs access to all folder paths involved in the move, both for updating the SQL server filename information and for moving the files.
  • I use the InvokeSQLCmd for Offline/Online execution because of the funky nature of the .SetOffline() and .SetOnline methods. I've found this to be more reliable.
share|improve this answer
1  
+1 Best use of powershell automation. – Kin Jul 17 '13 at 21:04
    
@MikeFal I saw you approved the edit. Since the question is tagged with 2008R2 shouldn't the addition be more obvious (bold or something)? (I have no idea, but I'm guessing it might not work or break something in a version other than 2012). – ypercubeᵀᴹ Mar 17 at 20:48
    
I thought about that and I've run it on SQL Server 2012 R2 -- it does throw errors with the Add-PSSnapin SqlServerCmdletSnapin100 cmdlets, but does process as long as you have the Import-Module SQLPS included before the main part of the script process runs. Technically this should have some better error checking around this, but I figured for this, that it would be a good quick edit to help someone else who maybe wasn't able to find the need for the Import-Module SQLPS if they are on a newer version. – Chad Rexin Mar 17 at 21:49
    
Thanks a ton. Small issue though. The robocopy file names aren't quoted here.. If you have user created database names with spaces it doesn't work quite right. – Tim Brigham Jul 5 at 14:38

You can use either Alter database Modify File or Detach/Attach methods.

Note: Both will require some downtime, so has to be done during maintenance window.

This assumes that you have same directory structure on the new drive e.g. C:\data\ and D:\Data.

-- using Alter database with Modify method (preferred one)

SET NOCOUNT ON

DECLARE @datafile VARCHAR(255)
    ,@logfile VARCHAR(255)
    ,@dbid TINYINT
    ,@SQLText VARCHAR(max)
    ,@dbname VARCHAR(255)
    ,@sqltext1 VARCHAR(max)
    ,@SQLText2 VARCHAR(max)

--2. Prepare for modify
IF EXISTS (
        SELECT 1
        FROM tempdb..sysobjects
        WHERE NAME LIKE '%#filetable%'
        )
BEGIN
    DROP TABLE #filetable
END

CREATE TABLE #filetable (
    mdf VARCHAR(255)
    ,ldf VARCHAR(255)
    ,dbid TINYINT
    ,dbname VARCHAR(100)
    ,fileid TINYINT
    ,logicalname SYSNAME
    )

--
INSERT #filetable (
    mdf
    ,dbid
    ,fileid
    ,logicalname
    )
SELECT physical_name
    ,database_id
    ,data_space_id
    ,NAME
FROM sys.master_files
WHERE data_space_id = 1

INSERT #filetable (
    ldf
    ,dbid
    ,fileid
    ,logicalname
    )
SELECT physical_name
    ,database_id
    ,data_space_id
    ,NAME
FROM sys.master_files
WHERE data_space_id = 0

UPDATE u
SET u.dbname = s.NAME
FROM #filetable u
INNER JOIN master..sysdatabases s ON u.dbid = s.dbid

UPDATE #filetable
SET mdf = replace(mdf, 'C:', 'D:')
    ,ldf = replace(ldf, 'C:', 'D:')
FROM #filetable

SELECT @dbid = min(dbid)
FROM #filetable
WHERE dbid > 4

WHILE @dbid IS NOT NULL
BEGIN
    SELECT @SQLText = 'alter database [' + dbname + '] MODIFY FILE (Name = ' + logicalname + ' , FileName = N''' + ldf + ''');'
    FROM #filetable
    WHERE dbid = convert(VARCHAR, @dbid)
        AND fileid = 0 -- Log file

    PRINT @SQLText

    --Exec(@SQLText)
    SELECT @SQLText2 = 'alter database [' + dbname + '] MODIFY FILE (Name = ' + logicalname + ' , FileName = N''' + mdf + ''');'
    FROM #filetable
    WHERE dbid = convert(VARCHAR, @dbid)
        AND fileid = 1 -- data file

    PRINT @SQLText2

    --Exec(@SQLText)
    SELECT @dbid = min(dbid)
    FROM #filetable
    WHERE dbid > 4
        AND dbid > @dbid
END

--- using Old Detach / Attach method (not preferred, but still people use it.. unfortunately I used it recently on a NON prod server).

DECLARE @datafile VARCHAR(255)
    ,@logfile VARCHAR(255)
    ,@dbid TINYINT
    ,@SQLText VARCHAR(8000)
    ,@dbname VARCHAR(255)
    ,@SQLText2 VARCHAR(8000)

--2. Detach All Local Databases and prepare for Attach
IF EXISTS (
        SELECT 1
        FROM tempdb..sysobjects
        WHERE NAME LIKE '%#filetable%'
        )
BEGIN
    DROP TABLE #filetable
END

CREATE TABLE #filetable (
    mdf VARCHAR(255)
    ,ldf VARCHAR(255)
    ,dbid TINYINT
    ,dbname VARCHAR(100)
    ,fileid TINYINT
    )

--
INSERT #filetable (
    mdf
    ,dbid
    ,fileid
    )
SELECT physical_name
    ,database_id
    ,data_space_id
FROM sys.master_files
WHERE data_space_id = 1

INSERT #filetable (
    ldf
    ,dbid
    ,fileid
    )
SELECT physical_name
    ,database_id
    ,data_space_id
FROM sys.master_files
WHERE data_space_id = 0

UPDATE u
SET u.dbname = s.NAME
FROM #filetable u
INNER JOIN master..sysdatabases s ON u.dbid = s.dbid

UPDATE #filetable
SET mdf = replace(mdf, 'C:', 'D:')
    ,ldf = replace(ldf, 'C:', 'D:')
FROM #filetable

SELECT @dbid = min(dbid)
FROM #filetable
WHERE dbid > 4

WHILE @dbid IS NOT NULL
BEGIN
    SELECT @SQLText = 'alter database [' + dbname + ']'
    FROM #filetable
    WHERE dbid = convert(VARCHAR, @dbid)

    SELECT @SQLText = @SQLText + CHAR(10) + ' set single_user with rollback immediate;'

    SELECT @SQLText = @SQLText + CHAR(10) + ' exec master..sp_detach_db ' + dbname
    FROM #filetable
    WHERE dbid = convert(VARCHAR, @dbid)

    PRINT @SQLText

    --Exec(@SQLText)
    SELECT @SQLText2 = 'exec master..sp_attach_db ''' + dbname + ''''
    FROM #filetable
    WHERE dbid = @dbid

    SELECT @SQLText2 = @SQLText2 + ',''' + mdf + ''''
    FROM #filetable
    WHERE dbid = @dbid
        AND mdf IS NOT NULL

    SELECT @SQLText2 = @SQLText2 + ',''' + ldf + ''''
    FROM #filetable
    WHERE dbid = @dbid
        AND ldf IS NOT NULL

    PRINT @SQLText2

    --Exec(@SQLText)
    SELECT @dbid = min(dbid)
    FROM #filetable
    WHERE dbid > 4
        AND dbid > @dbid
END

DROP TABLE #filetable
share|improve this answer

The only way that I know of to do multiple DBs at once would be to script the move for multiple DBs at once.

ALTER DATABASE database_nameA SET OFFLINE WITH ROLLBACK IMMEDIATE;
ALTER DATABASE database_nameB SET OFFLINE WITH ROLLBACK IMMEDIATE;
ALTER DATABASE database_nameC SET OFFLINE WITH ROLLBACK IMMEDIATE;
-------

Here you could either move the files manually, or write a script to do it. Possibly using xp_cmdshell or some tool. Probably easier to just move the files by hand though. Mark a bunch of them, then drag and drop.

-------
ALTER DATABASE database_nameA MODIFY FILE ( NAME = logical_name, FILENAME = 'new_path\os_file_name' );
ALTER DATABASE database_nameB MODIFY FILE ( NAME = logical_name, FILENAME = 'new_path\os_file_name' );
ALTER DATABASE database_nameC MODIFY FILE ( NAME = logical_name, FILENAME = 'new_path\os_file_name' );

ALTER DATABASE database_nameA SET ONLINE;
ALTER DATABASE database_nameB SET ONLINE;
ALTER DATABASE database_nameC SET ONLINE;

Of course if you move the data file and the log file you have to make sure you do the MODIFY FILE part for each part.

share|improve this answer
------------------------------
--erezbensimon@gmail.com - July 2016


use master;
go 

SET NOCOUNT ON

print '----------------------------------------------------------------------------------'
print '--Script for Moving Multiple database files to a new drive / ' + CONVERT(varchar(256),getdate() )
print '----------------------------------------------------------------------------------'
print ''


DECLARE @dbname nvarchar(128)
DECLARE @DestPath nvarchar(256)


--Set here the new destination path of the file
set @DestPath =  'T:\Data\'

------------------------------------------------
--Filter: HD Databases
------------------------------------------------
DECLARE DBList_cursor CURSOR FOR 

Select name from sys.databases

--where name like '<FIlter Something>'

----------------------------------------------

OPEN DBList_cursor

FETCH NEXT FROM DBList_cursor 
 INTO @dbname

WHILE @@FETCH_STATUS = 0
BEGIN

  declare @output_script varchar(max) --Output of the generated script
  declare @mdf_orig_path nvarchar(256) --Original datbase file path
  declare @cmdstring nvarchar(256) --Command String
  declare @CursorDeclare varchar(max) --Cursor declaration command
  declare @Originalfilename varchar(max) -- local @CursorDeclare command
  declare @filename varchar(max) -- local @CursorDeclare command
  declare @LogicalFileaame varchar(max) -- Logical FileName

  --Set null into @output script
  set @output_script=''
  --Generate Databse Cursor declaration command
  set @CursorDeclare='DECLARE DBFiles_cursor CURSOR FOR select [filename], [name] from '+ @dbname + '.sys.sysfiles'
  --Cursor Declaration
  execute (@CursorDeclare) 


  OPEN DBFiles_cursor
  FETCH NEXT FROM DBFiles_cursor INTO @filename, @LogicalFileaame

  --For RollBack Option
  select @Originalfilename = @filename

  --Modify Physical FileName
  if (@filename like '%.mdf') begin 
         select @mdf_orig_path = @filename
          IF(CHARINDEX('\', @filename) > 0)
          select @filename = RIGHT(@filename, CHARINDEX('\', REVERSE(@filename)) -1) 

         select @filename = @DestPath + @filename
         select @cmdstring = ' ''copy' + ' ' + '"'+ @mdf_orig_path + '"' + ' ' + '"' + @filename +'"' + ''''
  --Get Logical FileNAme


  end




print CHAR(10)
print '-----------------------------------------'
print  @dbname 
print '-----------------------------------------'
print CHAR(10)
print 'print  ''Start'' + CONVERT(varchar(256), getdate() ) '
print '---Offline Database' + @dbname      
print 'ALTER DATABASE ' + @dbname + ' SET OFFLINE WITH ROLLBACK IMMEDIATE' + CHAR(10) + 'GO'
print 'exec master..xp_cmdshell' + ' ' + @cmdstring + CHAR(10)
print '--For RollBack Use this:ALTER DATABASE ' + @dbname +' MODIFY FILE ( NAME =' + @LogicalFileaame +', FILENAME =' + @Originalfilename + ')' + CHAR(10)
print 'ALTER DATABASE ' + @dbname +' MODIFY FILE ( NAME =' + @LogicalFileaame +', FILENAME =' + '''' + @DestPath + @dbname + '.mdf'' )' +CHAR(10)


print '---ONline Database' + @dbname
print 'ALTER DATABASE ' + @dbname + ' SET ONLINE WITH
ROLLBACK IMMEDIATE
GO' 

  WHILE @@FETCH_STATUS = 0
  BEGIN   
   set @output_script=@output_script+' (FILENAME = '''+ @filename +'''),' 
      FETCH NEXT FROM DBFiles_cursor INTO @filename, @LogicalFileaame
  END

set @output_script=SUBSTRING(@output_script,0,len(@output_script))

CLOSE DBFiles_cursor
DEALLOCATE DBFiles_cursor

FETCH NEXT FROM DBList_cursor 
INTO @dbname

END 


CLOSE DBList_cursor
DEALLOCATE DBList_cursor
share|improve this answer
    
You should format your code (=> dba.stackexchange.com/help/formatting ) and add some words in order to explain how it anwer the question... ( => dba.stackexchange.com/help/how-to-answer) – Julien Vavasseur Jul 19 at 8:49

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