If the DB server takes database connections from your host (usually on port 5432), then you don't need to use SSH. In this case, you need to do the following:
pg_dump -h your_db_host -U db_user -C db_name | psql -h localhost -d local_db_name -U local_db_user
If you can only connect to your database from the host itself, you have to add the SSH logic from your MySQL example.
-C, you will get a
CREATE DATABASE command in the beginning of the dump so you don't have to create it yourself. The above command will ask for a password twice unless you store these in a .pgpass file (assuming you are on linux/Unix). Also, the local connection may be different if your DB doesn't listen on TCP (in this case just omit the
-h localhost part).
For further details and options, see pg_dump documentation.