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I have transactional replication set up on SQL 2008, and the article in question has "Copy nonclustered Indexes" set to TRUE.

If I add a non-clustered index on the publisher (using CREATE INDEX), will that push to the subscriber immediately?

Or do I need to run a snapshot?

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up vote 9 down vote accepted

You'll have to push it to the subscriber yourself. "Copy..." only applies to the snapshot.

From MSDN : Frequently Asked Questions for Replication Administrators

How do I add or change indexes on publication and subscription databases?

Indexes can be added at the Publisher or Subscribers with no special considerations 
for replication (be aware that indexes can affect performance). CREATE INDEX and ALTER
INDEX are not replicated, so if you add or change an index at, for example, the Publisher,
you must make the same addition or change at the Subscriber if you want it reflected there.
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You would need to push a snapshot. You'll probably find it easier to simply create the index on the subscriber if the index is needed there.

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