Normalization is the process of organizing columns into tables within a relational database in such a way as to minimize redundancy and avoid insertion, update and deletion anomalies.

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Reporting on a normalized Key-Value pivot

ERD & SQL Fiddle provided. We're trying to design a reporting tool for our stakeholders around a normalized Key-Value Pair model. We've tried to find a solution using Pivot Tables but can't seem ...
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133 views

Transforming table to third normal form

I have a table like this: L(A, B, C, D, E) and functional dependencies are: AB -> CDE C -> D D -> B D -> E I need to transform this table into 3NF. I think it's not even in 2NF. I ...
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Database Normalization - Can one field point to another?

This may sound like a dumb question, but I am a software developer new to database design... So the concept makes sense to me, but maybe this doesn't carry-- Is it possible for a field in a record ...
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3NF Vs 2NF, which is more strict?

Which of these is true: If a table is in 2nd normal-form then it must be in 3rd normal-form. If a table is in 3rd normal-form then it must be in 2nd normal-form. I know only one of them is ...
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150 views

Which tables to create according to relations

We are planning a new system with a new DB (MS SQL Server). We have the following entities and the following relations: Entities: Clubs, Chains, PaymentTypes, etc... Relations: Clubs-Chains (M-M); ...
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SQL table design for primary keys (best practice)

I have a User table that contains the following fields ID (Auto-generated GUID) UserName Password FirstName LastName Email AddressID (GUID) This is linked to the table Address (1-1 relation) which ...
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72 views

Database normalization: Which is the best fit?

I have 3 different types of data set: Notification: start_date end_date notification_type country_id state_id Campaign: start_date end_date user_notification Transaction email ...
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187 views

Simple table normalisation

In raw form, I have data with 2 columns: skills in welsh and stats for that skill. For storing these information in a database, would it be best to combine the stats with the categories, or split ...
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2k views

First Normal Form, why is it good and how does it reduce redundancy

I asked a similar question on SO and was advised to ask the type of question here. This is for a course on relational databases. A sample problem asks "how come every table in a relational database ...
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2answers
164 views

Is this in 1NF?

I'm an A-level Computer Science student, and my teacher can't explain how to get me from UNF to 1NF. I've researched a little, but I'm not sure as to whether this table (below) is in 1NF or not. I've ...
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277 views

Storing created/retired dates for a large amount of different entities

In the db I'm working on now almost every entity has these 4 columns: CreatedDate CreatedBy RetiredDate RetiredBy Usually this is used for logging purposes, and for some of the entities the ...
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Decomposition of a relation to 2NF then to 3NF

I'm currently studying for my exams and the trouble I am having is how to decompose a relation R with given functional dependencies into 2NF then 3NF. For example for the following R and functional ...
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Normalized Table Structure for Logging

How can I normalize a table that has four columns for logging the latest activity for a single row: Created On Created By Modified On Modified By We have dozens of tables, all with these 4 ...
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148 views

Optimisation Newbie: How much of a 'sin' is redundancy?

I've been developing for a while, but never really had to deal with DB/scaling issues before. That's suddenly changed and I've found myself in the deep end. I have 2 SQL tables, as such: VOTES ...
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2answers
122 views

Survey Database - Respondent Table (1NF or 3NF - Pros and Cons)

Building out a Survey ERD ODS layer. Now i'm debating on the design for my Respondent Table. Not sure if its best to have it as 1NF or 3NF. FOr a quick back story I get a survey extract with ...
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1k views

Why is this relation in 3NF?

I have a relation: R4 = {{T,U,V}, {T → U, U → T, T → V}} I know from looking at the answer key that this relation is in BCNF. I'm going through the process of rigorously determining what normal ...
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365 views

Migrating and normalizing data

We are rewriting a large Django application which uses a MySQL database, and the database schema needs to undergo major modifications. We're also porting the app to use PostgreSQL, for a couple of ...
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4answers
541 views

Normalization for postal addresses in US (address, county, city, state, zipcode)?

I've been trying to understand for the last few years which way is good for storing addresses. I've been getting "normalize all the way" but also "denormalize as much as you can" and I just cannot get ...
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5k views

How to handle table design with variable columns

I have a table design scenario and as a non-DBA type, would like opinions on which is more scaleable. Say you are asked to record information on houses for a metro area, starting with a small ...
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2answers
247 views

3rd Normal Form violation?

I've got a photo review type of application, where the customer wants to have an option for the user to flag issues with the photos. So, for instance, a photo could be tagged as "fuzzy," "grainy," or ...
3
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1answer
30 views

does merging tables always increases performance?

Consider we have data from visitors in a web site. And you are trying to create a database design for data mining. There are some common fields which users have such as browser,ip, etc... . But there ...
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66 views

Does the definition of 2NF prohibit _transitive_ dependencies on a partial key or only direct ones?

We know a relation is in 2NF iff it is in 1NF and no non-prime attribute is dependent on a proper subset of the candidate key. But is "dependent" in this definition strict or loose in the following ...
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116 views

Is two unrelated tables with foreign keys to a third table breaking first normal form?

I was wondering if this breaks first normal form. AddressTable Id - PK Street City State BusinessTable Id - PK BusinessName AddressId - FK PersonTable Id ...
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246 views

Reporting Table Design

I'm writing a system that allows users to store values against each week in October and November and each day in December - starting from the first Monday. I'm holding the raw data entered by the ...
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2answers
70 views

Should I normalise this database?

I have two database designs thought of for storing messages(instant messages) between users. It will be a group chat system. I have two table designs in mind. One is this: CREATE TABLE ...
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82 views

Entity Relationship Design; The best scenario

TLDR; What would be the best design choice for the scenario below and how would each design react at extremely large data volume? I have experience working with large government database systems ...
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125 views

How can I prove / disprove If A ↠ BC and A → B then A → C

/ From GATE 2007 IT: Consider the following implications relating to functional and multi valued dependencies given below, which may or may not be correct. A) If A ↠ B and A ↠ C then A → BC B) ...
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Normalising Customers and Employers with a people table

At what normalisation stage is it recommend to split say Customers and Employees into a People table and then link to the unique attributes of Customers and Employees? I can't seem to find the ...
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159 views

If all variables are a subset of the candidate key, is the database design 5NF?

I have a table called LogMessages, which has the following columns: Level A numeric value which represents Trace, Debug, Info, Warning, Error or Fatal Time A UTC time Message Foreign key to a ...
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MySQL Database Normalization Foreign Keys. One to Many relationship. With Diagram

Here is my database design. I've been doing a lot of reading and still don't really know what I'm doing. Hoping you guys had tips! My DB will have millions of entries. Many "People" rows will have ...
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1answer
798 views

What is best practice to organize / normalize database tables?

I manage group that uses a database that is about 12 years old. There are more than 200 tables / views that have been created by various people over the years, many of them no longer with us. Most ...
3
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1answer
54 views

Should I create a extra relation-table when I have two columns in one table referencing to one column in another table

My problem is best explained by example: Suppose I have a database about chess games and players. Which one of the following structures should I choose Option 1) player (player_id,name... etc) ...
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64 views

Best design for a many:many relationship issue

We have three types of entity, each with their own table: table:A(a_id), table:B(b_id), table:C(c_id) Each of these entities can have any number of email addresses and linked Twitter accounts. ...
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146 views

Modeling discounts - Product specific and Customer specific discounts

I have a reasonably simple database but have the following problem: I'm modeling a store + a lot of non-relevant stuff database. I have the following problem. I want to allow for specific products to ...
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89 views

Superkeys of this relation

I am trying to find the superkeys of this relation, but I am having troubles finding out how many superkeys there are and exactly what they are. I figured out that the candidate keys were ...
3
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1answer
192 views

Should database be denormalized if I need an index across multiple tables

I have a catalog of album and song names. The song has a foreign key to the album table. I expect queries like: SELECT * FROM song s JOIN album a ON a.id = s.album_id WHERE LOWER(CONCAT_WS(' ', ...
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973 views

Is normalization process needed?

Well after learning DBMS as a subject i got so many questions in mind. Normalization is one of them. As i learnt it there was a lot more confusion and i found that whatever we do in normalization ...
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2answers
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Database normalization: Describing trait - foreign key to table, or varchar field with value?

My colleagues and I are having a discussion about the normalization of descriptive traits in the database, such as "status" or "type". Let's call the central table of the discussion "Order". In my ...
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1answer
3k views

Two-column foreign key constraint only when third column is NOT NULL

Given the following tables: CREATE TABLE verified_name ( id SERIAL PRIMARY KEY, name TEXT NOT NULL, email TEXT NOT NULL, UNIQUE (name, email) ); CREATE ...
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149 views

How to normalize data based only on the repetitions

Given a non-normalized data table, is there a good a strategy to attempt to normalize based on repeated data? Assume we have no information about the significance of the columns. In a small example ...
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2answers
990 views

History table design for supertype/subtype

I'm designing an asset management database that tracks IT hardware. I decided to use a supertype/subtype design. I'm at a point where I want to track history of changes for devices. I wanted to use a ...
2
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4answers
123 views

Row for each date, or 31 columns?

Currently I have a system whose front-end looks like this: The following query: SELECT `l`.*, `s`.`month`, `s`.`year` FROM `summarylines` `l` JOIN `summaries` `s` ON ...
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4answers
380 views

Does my table violate normalization rules?

I am developing an emulator for a game. My item table looks like this: -- ---------------------------- -- Table structure for `items` -- ---------------------------- DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `items`; ...
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2answers
50 views

Customer table with last order id - violate normalization?

So I'm looking at a customers table that has a relationship with an orders table. There is a trigger in place to set the last_order_id field of the customers table whenever a order it placed. Does ...
2
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1answer
129 views

What would be the Candidate key (s) of this relation?

R(ABCDEPG) F={AB->CD, DE->P, C->E, P->C, B->G} To my consideration, the candidate keys are: AB, AG, CD, DE. Am I correct? Why or why not?
2
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1answer
310 views

How to model schedule and keep good constraints?

I have some data that I am having a hard time modeling. Particularly, I am unsure of how I can ensure that I have unique data. This is for a schedule where I am assigning teams to stores. A team will ...
2
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3answers
234 views

is id and phone number enough to uniquely identify a row in phone numbers

Was designing a table a customer_phone_numbers table a while back, which only purpose was to allow us to store as many phone numbers as a user wanted to have on file. I originally came to the ...
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740 views

Modeling invoices and orders

I have a problem in modeling a database that contains orders and invoices. Actually it's more of a problem from a business point of view, but it's related to modeling the database nonetheless. Model ...
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302 views

Writing to a DKNF database, but reading from a de-normalized table for performance?

Would the following approach be reasonable? The Goal: queries have to be relatively fast, but without the hassles incurred by writing to a de-normalized database. The Context: A database for ...
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1answer
75 views

Minimal 3NF normalization issues

I'm trying to learn how to normalize to 3NF but the example that my teacher gave us doesn't really help. The algorithm I always used is this one: Find a canonical cover F_c for F For each FD X->Y ...