PostgreSQL is a powerful, enterprise class, open source RDBMS. It has more than 15 years of active development and a proven architecture that has earned it a strong reputation for reliability and data integrity. It runs on all major operating systems, including Linux, UNIX and Windows. It prides ...

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182
votes
6answers
318k views

How do I list all databases and tables using psql?

I am trying to learn PostgreSQL administration and have started learning how to use the psql command line tool. When I log in with psql --username=postgres, how do I list all databases and tables? I ...
56
votes
5answers
5k views

Do stored procedures prevent SQL injection?

Is it true that stored procedures prevent SQL injection attacks against PostgreSQL databases? I did a little research and found out that SQL Server, Oracle and MySQL are not safe against SQL injection ...
38
votes
2answers
14k views

How can I time SQL-queries using psql?

I would like to benchmark some SQL-queries agains my PostgreSQL database. Is there any way I can time SQL-queries using psql?
31
votes
1answer
68k views

How to insert values into a table from a select query in PostgreSQL?

I have a table items (item_id serial, name varchar(10), item_group int) and a table items_ver (id serial, item_id int, name varchar(10), item_group int). Now I want to insert a row into items_ver ...
30
votes
6answers
27k views

How do I find PostgreSQL's data directory?

I forgot how I last time started postgres (it was months ago) and I don't remember where the data directory is located at. The postgres command seems to require to location. I'm on MacOsX if that ...
28
votes
5answers
12k views

SQL: SELECT All columns except some

Is there a way to SELECT all columns in a table, except specific ones? IT would be very convenient for selecting all the non-blob or non-geometric columns from a table. Something like: SELECT * ...
27
votes
1answer
27k views

How do I get the current unix timestamp from PostgreSQL?

Unix timestamp is the number of seconds since midnight UTC January 1, 1970. How do I get the correct unix timestamp from PostgreSQL? When comparing to currenttimestamp.com and timestamp.1e5b.de I ...
23
votes
5answers
6k views

Working of indexes in PostgreSQL

I have a couple of questions regarding working of indexes in PostgreSQL. I have a Friends table with the following index: Friends ( user_id1 ,user_id2) user_id1 and user_id2 are foreign keys to ...
23
votes
3answers
18k views

Find highest level of a hierarchical field: with vs without CTEs

note: this question has been updated to reflect that we are currently using MySQL, having done so, I would like to see a how much easier it would be if we switched to a CTE-supporting database. I ...
22
votes
3answers
11k views

What are the drawbacks with using UUID or GUID as a primary key?

I would like to build a distributed system. I need to store data in databases and it would be helpful to use an UUID or a GUID as a primary key on some tables. I assume it's a drawbacks with this ...
22
votes
1answer
3k views

USING construct in JOIN clause can introduce optimization barriers in certain cases?

It was brought to my attention that the USING construct (instead of ON) in the FROM clause of SELECT queries might introduce optimization barriers in certain cases. I mean this key word: SELECT * ...
21
votes
3answers
3k views

Is it possible to quickly create/restore database snapshots with PostgreSQL?

First of all, I'm a developer, not a DBA or sysadmin; please be gentle :) I'm working on an application workflow where a single user action will trigger complex changes in the database - creating ...
19
votes
3answers
28k views

How do I list all schemas in PostgreSQL?

When using PostgreSQL v9.1, how do I list all of the schemas using SQL? I was expecting something along the lines of: SELECT something FROM pg_blah;
19
votes
4answers
12k views

Most idiomatic way to implement UPSERT in Postgresql nowadays

I've read about different UPSERT implementations in PostgreSQL, but all of these solutions are relatively old or relatively exotic (using writeable CTE, for example). And I'm just not a psql expert ...
19
votes
1answer
2k views

Is there a good way to run a trigger for each record in a postgres table?

I have a system where I can't control the design of some tables (replicated via Slony-I), and so I have a series of what we refer to as 'shadow tables', where I extract some information out of the ...
18
votes
3answers
24k views

How do I list all columns for a specified table

I'm looking for a precise piece of information in a database which I have no knowledge about. It's a 3rd party product, they are slow on answering some questions, and I know the data is lying inside ...
18
votes
9answers
34k views

PostgreSQL is running locally but I cannot connect. Why?

Recently updated my machine from Mac OS X Lion (10.7.4) to Mountain Lion (10.8) and I think it borked my PostgreSQL installation. It was installed originally via Homebrew. I'm not a DBA, but hoping ...
18
votes
6answers
673 views

Count where two or more columns in a row are over a certain value [basketball, double double, triple double]

I play a basketball game which allows to output its statistics as a database file, so one can calculate statistics from it that are not implemented in the game. So far I've had no problem caluclating ...
18
votes
2answers
26k views

How do I use currval() in PostgreSQL to get the last inserted id?

I have a table: CREATE TABLE names (id serial, name varchar(20)) I want the "last inserted id" from that table, without using RETURNING id on insert. There seem to be a function CURRVAL(), but I ...
18
votes
2answers
3k views

Is a composite index also good for queries on the first field?

Let's say I have a table with fields A and B. I make regular queries on A+B, so I created a composite index on (A,B). Would queries on only A also be fully optimized by the composite index? ...
17
votes
3answers
10k views

PostgreSQL multi-column unique constraint and NULL values

I have a table like the following: create table my_table ( id int8 not null, id_A int8 not null, id_B int8 not null, id_C int8 null, constraint pk_my_table primary key (id), constraint ...
17
votes
1answer
4k views

Best practices for schema changes and data migrations to a live database without downtime?

How do you make schema changes to a live database without downtime? For instance, lets say I have a PostgreSQL database with a table including various user data like email addresses etc, all ...
16
votes
6answers
7k views

How do I efficiently get “the most recent corresponding row”?

I have a query pattern that must be very common, but I don't know how to write an efficient query for it. I want to look up the rows of a table that correspond to "the most recent date not after" the ...
16
votes
5answers
2k views

Best cloud platform for PostgreSQL [closed]

Currently, in our project, we use dedicated servers for our PostgreSQL database. In theory, we can run anything on some cloud platforms. However, PostgreSQL configuration is strictly related to ...
16
votes
4answers
5k views

PostgreSQL Stored Procedure Performance

Coming from a MySQL background, where stored procedure performance (older article) and usability are questionable, I am evaluating PostgreSQL for a new product for my company. One of the things I ...
16
votes
3answers
4k views

Is it a good idea/approach to index a VARCHAR column?

We're using PostgreSQL v8.2.3. There are tables involved: EMPLOYEE and EMAILLIST. Table 1: EMPLOYEE (column1, column2, email1, email2, column5, column6) Table 2: EMAILLIST (email) 2 tables are ...
15
votes
3answers
5k views

Is the CPU performance relevant for a database server?

This is a purely theoretical question. Let's say I have an application deployed on multiple servers. A load balancer, Multiple/scalable applications servers A (single) database server (for the ...
14
votes
4answers
12k views

Pattern matching with LIKE, SIMILAR TO or regular expressions in PostgreSQL

I had to write a simple query where I go looking for people's name that start with a B or a D : SELECT s.name FROM spelers s WHERE s.name LIKE 'B%' OR s.name LIKE 'D%' ORDER BY 1 I was wondering ...
14
votes
6answers
5k views

Are there any good and free tools for managing a PostgreSQL database?

Before, I have used phpmyadmin to manage an MySQL database, but now I would like to manage a PostgreSQL database. The PostgreSQL database is on a server, but not a webserver, so I don't use PHP. Are ...
14
votes
2answers
15k views

How do I install pgcrypto for PostgreSQL in Ubuntu Server?

I'm using Ubuntu Server 10.10 and I have installed PostgreSQL 8.4 using apt-get install postgresql. I would like to use the built-in sha1() function, but it seems that I have to install pgcrypto ...
14
votes
2answers
11k views

Increasing work_mem and shared_buffers on Postgres 9.2 significantly slows down queries

I have a PostgreSQL 9.2 instance running on RHEL 6.3, 8-core machine with 16GB of RAM. The server is dedicated to this database. Given that the default postgresql.conf is quite conservative regarding ...
12
votes
3answers
6k views

Measure the size of a PostgreSQL table row

I have a PostgreSQL table. select * is very slow whereas select id is nice and quick. I think it may be that the size of the row is very large and it's taking a while to transport, or it may be some ...
12
votes
3answers
6k views

Are regular VACUUM ANALYZE stil recommended under 9.1?

I'm using PostgreSQL 9.1 on Ubuntu. Are scheduled VACUUM ANALYZE still recommended, or is autovacuum enough to take care of all needs? If the answer is "it depends", then: I have a largish database ...
12
votes
1answer
7k views

Create index if it does not exist

I am working on a function that allows me to add an index if it does not exist. I am running into the problem that I cannot get a list of indexes to compare to. Any thoughts? This is a similar issue ...
12
votes
1answer
2k views

How can I benchmark a PostgreSQL query?

I want to benchmark a query containing an user-defined function I have written for PostgreSQL. Are there any standard ways to run such a benchmark? I know that timing can be turned on with \timing ...
12
votes
1answer
2k views

What is the modern way to partition PostgreSQL across machines, when the data is “naturally partitionable”

After several years of dwelling into the "NoSQL" space, now I have a problem that is quite "relational" in its nature. Today I see data stores with quite different eyes than before. Things like Riak ...
11
votes
4answers
3k views

Locking issue with concurrent DELETE / INSERT in PostgreSQL

This is pretty simple, but I'm baffled by what PG does (v9.0). We start with a simple table: CREATE TABLE test (id INT PRIMARY KEY); and a few rows: INSERT INTO TEST VALUES (1); INSERT INTO TEST ...
11
votes
2answers
10k views

Force drop db while others may be connected in postgresql

I need to remove a database in postgresql DB. How can I do it even if there are active connections? I need a sort of -force flag, that will drop all connections and then the DB. How can I implement ...
11
votes
2answers
2k views

PostgreSQL procedural languages - differences between PL/pgSQL and SQL

Can anybody please summarize the differences between: http://www.postgresql.org/docs/9.1/static/xfunc-sql.html and http://www.postgresql.org/docs/9.1/static/plpgsql.html ? Main points: ...
11
votes
4answers
25k views

How to insert (file) data into a PostgreSQL bytea column

This question is not about bytea v. oid v. blobs v. large objects, etc. I have a table containing a primary key integer field and a bytea field. I'd like to enter data into the bytea field. This ...
11
votes
2answers
6k views

Configuring PostgreSQL for write performance

One of my PostgreSQL servers hosts several (1-3) databases which receive a constant stream of data. The data is not particularly structured, it amounts to the current time and a variety of observed ...
11
votes
5answers
3k views

How to efficiently copy millions of rows from one table to another in Postgresql?

I have two database tables. One contains hundreds of millions of records. Lets call that one history. The other one is calculated on daily basis and I want to copy all of its records into the history ...
11
votes
1answer
507 views

Why is there a PostgreSQL Turtle?

I was just checking out the propaganda page for PostgreSQL and I found this little piece of art: It is the "Turtle Style" PostgreSQL logo. How old is this, and did PostgreSQL ever officially use a ...
11
votes
4answers
16k views

PostgreSQL: How to create full copy of database schema in same database?

How I can copy my public schema into the same database with full table structure, data, functions, fk, pk and etc. My version of Postgres is 8.4 P.S. I need to copy schema NOT database
11
votes
1answer
20k views

How to connect to an remote PostgreSQL database on Ubuntu using pgAdmin3?

I´m trying to setup an PostgreSQL database on an Ubuntu machine. I would like to be able to access it using pgAdmin3 from a remote machine. How do I setup this? I have installed the PostgreSQL ...
11
votes
5answers
2k views

Efficiently select beginning and end of multiple contiguous ranges in Postgresql query

I've got about a billion rows of data in a table with a name and an integer in the range 1-288. For a given name, every int is unique, and not every possible integer in the range is present--so there ...
11
votes
5answers
6k views

PostgreSQL: Force data into memory

Is there a systematic way to force PostgreSQL to load a specific table into memory, or at least read it from disk so that it will be cached by the system?
11
votes
1answer
12k views

Optimal way to ignore duplicate inserts?

Background This problem relates to ignoring duplicate inserts using PostgreSQL 9.2 or greater. The reason I ask is because of this code: -- Ignores duplicates. INSERT INTO db_table ...
11
votes
3answers
2k views

Does PostgreSQL 9.1 Streaming Replication catch up after a lag without WAL archiving?

Context: Let's say that, while using Streaming Replication/Hot Standby on a Postgres 9.1 cluster, a standby node goes down. It stays down for an day, during which time a lot of DML occurs on the ...
11
votes
1answer
1k views

How does PostgreSQL handle Checkpoints in the middle of a WAL-enabled backup?

On a PostgreSQL v9.0 I've a WAL archiving system working. So WAL files a regulary archived (when 3 WAL are created or if a WAL is older than 15 minutes). Now I add a binary packup of the PG_DATA ...