All versions of Microsoft SQL Server (not MySQL). Please also add a version-specific tag like sql-server-2016 if that is relevant to the question.
Microsoft's SQL Server is a suite of relational database management system (RDBMS) products providing multi-user database access functionality. It originated from the Sybase SQL Server 4.x codebase and Transact-SQL dialect (T-SQL), but it has forked significantly since then.
SQL Server is available in multiple versions, typically identified by release year, and versions are subdivided into editions to distinguish between product functionality. The latest released version is SQL Server 2014. SQL Server 2016 is also available as a public preview release.
The SQL Server product range is split broadly into five categories:
SQL Server is the main suite of enterprise and developer server products. Primary differences are licensing costs, capacities, and components included in the product, with some minor differences supported language features. Standard components include database language and storage server, developer tools, ETL tools, schedulers, and replication. Other components include OLAP, reporting, and parallel computation. Components runs as NT Services.
SQL Server Express is free for use and distribution but has reduced engine performance, functionality and capacity than found in its other server siblings. It is focused on small deployments and runs as an NT Service.
SQL Server Compact Edition is an embeddable subset of SQL Server. Like the Express edition it has a reduced language, functionality and capacity, but it is free to distribute. It's focused on small installations and desktop applications where its small footprint and no-management-required features are a great advantage.
SQL Server Analytics Platform System (or APS), formerly known as SQL Server Parallel Data Warehouse (PDW), is a pre-built data warehouse appliance that offers massively parallel processing for SQL Server, allowing support for many hundreds of terabytes.
Azure SQL Data Warehouse is an enterprise-class distributed database in the Azure Cloud capable of processing up to petabyte volumes of relational and non-relational data. It is the industry's first cloud data warehouse with grow, shrink, and pause in seconds.
SQL Server Release History
Version Year Release Name Codename 1.0 (OS/2) 1989 SQL Server 1.0 (16 bit) Ashton-Tate 1.1 (OS/2) 1991 SQL Server 1.1 (16 bit) - 4.21(WinNT) 1993 SQL Server 4.21 SQLNT 6.0 1995 SQL Server 6.0 SQL95 6.5 1996 SQL Server 6.5 Hydra 7.0 1998 SQL Server 7.0 Sphinx - 1999 SQL Server 7.0 OLAP Tools Palato mania 8.0 2000 SQL Server 2000 Shiloh 8.0 2003 SQL Server 2000 x64 Liberty 9.0 2005 SQL Server 2005 Yukon 10.0 2008 SQL Server 2008 Katmai 10.25 2010 SQL Azure DB CloudDatabase 10.5 2010 SQL Server 2008 R2 Kilimanjaro (aka KJ) 11.0 2012 SQL Server 2012 Denali 12.0 2014 SQL Server 2014 Hekaton
- MSDN SQL Server 2005 Transact-SQL Reference
- MSDN SQL Server 2008 R2 Transact-SQL Reference
- MSDN SQL Server 2012 Transact-SQL Reference
- MSDN SQL Server 2014 / 2016 Preview Transact-SQL Reference
- SQL Server Wikipedia Article
- SQL Azure Stack-Overflow Tag
- MSDN SQL Server DevCenter
- SQL Server Best Practices
There are several version- and edition-specific tags. It is recommended to use the sql-server tag together with the version- and/or edition-specific tag; for example, sql-server-2005 or sql-server-2014-express. Do not use this tag for other types of DBMS (mysql, postgresql, etc.).