New answers tagged upgrade
Upgrade should not fail (For this reason anyway). As stated in the link you provided, this is an application issue and only if it is directly accessing the Microsoft.SqlServer.Types.dll. The upgrade from 2008r2 to 2014 should work fine.
Try to run Repair on Passive node once that come clean try to failover to passive node, once failover test complete successful then try to apply SP3. Also make sure you have SQL Server service account is LOCAL ADMIN on both NODE.
The following link should get you R2 Eval: http://www.sqlschool.com/Resources.html It's definitely hard to find, let us know if this doesn't work for you. This has links to 32bit and 64bit versions.
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