2 edited with better answer
source | link

You may need to install at least Service Pack 2 or higher of SQL Server 2008 R2 (not the RTM) on Windows Server 2012 R2. I would suggest you to install the latest Service Pack 3. You can get the installer here. Slipstream your installer to SP3. This guide will help you on how to slipstream.

After you got a new installer of SQL Server 2008 R2 SP3, try to install again your cluster.

You can also read this KB Article for OS and SQL Server Version Compatibility.

Edit (to complete my answer with the following solution based on the KB):

Minimum SQL Server version requirements for Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows 8.1

For SQL Server 2008 R2 You must apply SQL Server 2008 R2 Service Pack 2 or a later update.


Issue: The "Cluster Service verification" rule fails when you try to install a SQL Server 2008 R2 failover cluster instance

Symptoms

When you try to install a SQL Server 2008 R2 failover cluster instance, the installation fails at the "Cluster Service verification" Rule.

Cause

This issue occurs if the COM-based MSClus.dll library is not enabled.

Note The SQL Server 2008 and SQL Server 2008 R2 cluster Setup programs depend on the COM-based MSClus.dll library. If this library is not enabled on the cluster node, the Setup fails.

Resolution

To resolve this issue, do one of the following:

  • Enable the Failover Cluster Automation Server feature on each node by using Server Manager. In Server Manager, expand Remote Server Administration Tools, expand Feature Administration Tools, expand Failover Clustering Tools, and then click to select Failover Cluster Automation Server.

  • Run the following Windows PowerShell cmdlet on each node to enable the Failover Cluster Automation Server feature: add-windowsfeature RSAT-Clustering-AutomationServer Note You must run this cmdlet at an elevated command prompt.

You may need to install at least Service Pack 2 or higher of SQL Server 2008 R2 (not the RTM) on Windows Server 2012 R2. I would suggest you install the latest Service Pack 3. You can get the installer here. Slipstream your installer to SP3. This guide will help you on how to slipstream.

After you got a new installer of SQL Server 2008 R2 SP3, try to install again your cluster.

You can also read this KB Article for OS and SQL Server Version Compatibility.

You may need to install at least Service Pack 2 or higher of SQL Server 2008 R2 on Windows Server 2012 R2. I would suggest you to install the latest Service Pack 3. You can get the installer here. Slipstream your installer to SP3. This guide will help you on how to slipstream.

You can also read this KB Article for OS and SQL Server Version Compatibility.

Edit (to complete my answer with the following solution based on the KB):

Minimum SQL Server version requirements for Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows 8.1

For SQL Server 2008 R2 You must apply SQL Server 2008 R2 Service Pack 2 or a later update.


Issue: The "Cluster Service verification" rule fails when you try to install a SQL Server 2008 R2 failover cluster instance

Symptoms

When you try to install a SQL Server 2008 R2 failover cluster instance, the installation fails at the "Cluster Service verification" Rule.

Cause

This issue occurs if the COM-based MSClus.dll library is not enabled.

Note The SQL Server 2008 and SQL Server 2008 R2 cluster Setup programs depend on the COM-based MSClus.dll library. If this library is not enabled on the cluster node, the Setup fails.

Resolution

To resolve this issue, do one of the following:

  • Enable the Failover Cluster Automation Server feature on each node by using Server Manager. In Server Manager, expand Remote Server Administration Tools, expand Feature Administration Tools, expand Failover Clustering Tools, and then click to select Failover Cluster Automation Server.

  • Run the following Windows PowerShell cmdlet on each node to enable the Failover Cluster Automation Server feature: add-windowsfeature RSAT-Clustering-AutomationServer Note You must run this cmdlet at an elevated command prompt.

1
source | link

You may need to install at least Service Pack 2 or higher of SQL Server 2008 R2 (not the RTM) on Windows Server 2012 R2. I would suggest you install the latest Service Pack 3. You can get the installer here. Slipstream your installer to SP3. This guide will help you on how to slipstream.

After you got a new installer of SQL Server 2008 R2 SP3, try to install again your cluster.

You can also read this KB Article for OS and SQL Server Version Compatibility.