13 added 61 characters in body; added 41 characters in body
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Version      Year  Release Name               Codename
1.0 (OS/2)   1989  SQL Server 1.0 (16 bit)    Ashton-Tate 
1.1 (OS/2)   1991  SQL Server 1.1 (16 bit)    -
4.21(WinNT)  1993  SQL Server 4.21            SQLNT
6.0          1995  SQL Server 6.0             SQL95
6.5          1996  SQL Server 6.5             Hydra
7.0          1998  SQL Server 7.0             Sphinx
 -           1999  SQL Server 7.0 OLAP Tools Palato maniaPlato
8.0          2000  SQL Server 2000            Shiloh
8.0          2003  SQL Server 2000 x64        Liberty
9.0          2005  SQL Server 2005            Yukon
10.0         2008  SQL Server 2008            Katmai
10.25        2010  SQL Azure DB               CloudDatabase
10.5         2010  SQL Server 2008 R2         Kilimanjaro (aka KJ)
11.0         2012  SQL Server 2012            Denali
12.0         2014  SQL Server 2014            Hekaton
13.0         2016  SQL Server 2016           ? SQL16 
14.0         2017  SQL Server 2017            Helsinki 
15.0         2019  SQL Server 2019            Seattle
Version     Year  Release Name              Codename
1.0 (OS/2)  1989  SQL Server 1.0 (16 bit)   Ashton-Tate 
1.1 (OS/2)  1991  SQL Server 1.1 (16 bit)    -
4.21(WinNT) 1993  SQL Server 4.21           SQLNT
6.0         1995  SQL Server 6.0            SQL95
6.5         1996  SQL Server 6.5            Hydra
7.0         1998  SQL Server 7.0            Sphinx
 -          1999  SQL Server 7.0 OLAP Tools Palato mania
8.0         2000  SQL Server 2000           Shiloh
8.0         2003  SQL Server 2000 x64       Liberty
9.0         2005  SQL Server 2005           Yukon
10.0        2008  SQL Server 2008           Katmai
10.25       2010  SQL Azure DB              CloudDatabase
10.5        2010  SQL Server 2008 R2        Kilimanjaro (aka KJ)
11.0        2012  SQL Server 2012           Denali
12.0        2014  SQL Server 2014           Hekaton
13.0        2016  SQL Server 2016           ? 
14.0        2017  SQL Server 2017           Helsinki 
Version      Year  Release Name               Codename
1.0 (OS/2)   1989  SQL Server 1.0 (16 bit)    Ashton-Tate 
1.1 (OS/2)   1991  SQL Server 1.1 (16 bit)    -
4.21(WinNT)  1993  SQL Server 4.21            SQLNT
6.0          1995  SQL Server 6.0             SQL95
6.5          1996  SQL Server 6.5             Hydra
7.0          1998  SQL Server 7.0             Sphinx
 -           1999  SQL Server 7.0 OLAP Tools  Plato
8.0          2000  SQL Server 2000            Shiloh
8.0          2003  SQL Server 2000 x64        Liberty
9.0          2005  SQL Server 2005            Yukon
10.0         2008  SQL Server 2008            Katmai
10.25        2010  SQL Azure DB               CloudDatabase
10.5         2010  SQL Server 2008 R2         Kilimanjaro (aka KJ)
11.0         2012  SQL Server 2012            Denali
12.0         2014  SQL Server 2014            Hekaton
13.0         2016  SQL Server 2016            SQL16 
14.0         2017  SQL Server 2017            Helsinki 
15.0         2019  SQL Server 2019            Seattle
12 Added codename for SQL Server 2017 and reference
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Version     Year  Release Name              Codename
1.0 (OS/2)  1989  SQL Server 1.0 (16 bit)   Ashton-Tate 
1.1 (OS/2)  1991  SQL Server 1.1 (16 bit)    -
4.21(WinNT) 1993  SQL Server 4.21           SQLNT
6.0         1995  SQL Server 6.0            SQL95
6.5         1996  SQL Server 6.5            Hydra
7.0         1998  SQL Server 7.0            Sphinx
 -          1999  SQL Server 7.0 OLAP Tools Palato mania
8.0         2000  SQL Server 2000           Shiloh
8.0         2003  SQL Server 2000 x64       Liberty
9.0         2005  SQL Server 2005           Yukon
10.0        2008  SQL Server 2008           Katmai
10.25       2010  SQL Azure DB              CloudDatabase
10.5        2010  SQL Server 2008 R2        Kilimanjaro (aka KJ)
11.0        2012  SQL Server 2012           Denali
12.0        2014  SQL Server 2014           Hekaton
13.0        2016  SQL Server 2016           ? 
14.0        2017  SQL Server 2017           ?Helsinki 
Version     Year  Release Name             Codename
1.0 (OS/2)  1989  SQL Server 1.0 (16 bit)   Ashton-Tate 
1.1 (OS/2)  1991  SQL Server 1.1 (16 bit)    -
4.21(WinNT) 1993  SQL Server 4.21           SQLNT
6.0         1995  SQL Server 6.0            SQL95
6.5         1996  SQL Server 6.5            Hydra
7.0         1998  SQL Server 7.0            Sphinx
 -          1999  SQL Server 7.0 OLAP Tools Palato mania
8.0         2000  SQL Server 2000           Shiloh
8.0         2003  SQL Server 2000 x64       Liberty
9.0         2005  SQL Server 2005           Yukon
10.0        2008  SQL Server 2008           Katmai
10.25       2010  SQL Azure DB              CloudDatabase
10.5        2010  SQL Server 2008 R2        Kilimanjaro (aka KJ)
11.0        2012  SQL Server 2012           Denali
12.0        2014  SQL Server 2014           Hekaton
13.0        2016  SQL Server 2016           ? 
14.0        2017  SQL Server 2017           ? 
Version     Year  Release Name              Codename
1.0 (OS/2)  1989  SQL Server 1.0 (16 bit)   Ashton-Tate 
1.1 (OS/2)  1991  SQL Server 1.1 (16 bit)    -
4.21(WinNT) 1993  SQL Server 4.21           SQLNT
6.0         1995  SQL Server 6.0            SQL95
6.5         1996  SQL Server 6.5            Hydra
7.0         1998  SQL Server 7.0            Sphinx
 -          1999  SQL Server 7.0 OLAP Tools Palato mania
8.0         2000  SQL Server 2000           Shiloh
8.0         2003  SQL Server 2000 x64       Liberty
9.0         2005  SQL Server 2005           Yukon
10.0        2008  SQL Server 2008           Katmai
10.25       2010  SQL Azure DB              CloudDatabase
10.5        2010  SQL Server 2008 R2        Kilimanjaro (aka KJ)
11.0        2012  SQL Server 2012           Denali
12.0        2014  SQL Server 2014           Hekaton
13.0        2016  SQL Server 2016           ? 
14.0        2017  SQL Server 2017           Helsinki 
11 updated for 2017 release
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SQL Server is available in multiple versions, typically identified by release year, and versions are subdivided into editions to distinguish between product functionality. The latest released version is SQL Server 20142017. SQL Server 2016 is also available as a public preview release.

Version     Year  Release Name             Codename
1.0 (OS/2)  1989  SQL Server 1.0 (16 bit)   Ashton-Tate 
1.1 (OS/2)  1991  SQL Server 1.1 (16 bit)    -
4.21(WinNT) 1993  SQL Server 4.21           SQLNT
6.0         1995  SQL Server 6.0            SQL95
6.5         1996  SQL Server 6.5            Hydra
7.0         1998  SQL Server 7.0            Sphinx
 -          1999  SQL Server 7.0 OLAP Tools Palato mania
8.0         2000  SQL Server 2000           Shiloh
8.0         2003  SQL Server 2000 x64       Liberty
9.0         2005  SQL Server 2005           Yukon
10.0        2008  SQL Server 2008           Katmai
10.25       2010  SQL Azure DB              CloudDatabase
10.5        2010  SQL Server 2008 R2        Kilimanjaro (aka KJ)
11.0        2012  SQL Server 2012           Denali
12.0        2014  SQL Server 2014           Hekaton
13.0        2016  SQL Server 2016           ? 
14.0        2017  SQL Server 2017           ? 

SQL Server is available in multiple versions, typically identified by release year, and versions are subdivided into editions to distinguish between product functionality. The latest released version is SQL Server 2014. SQL Server 2016 is also available as a public preview release.

Version     Year  Release Name             Codename
1.0 (OS/2)  1989  SQL Server 1.0 (16 bit)   Ashton-Tate 
1.1 (OS/2)  1991  SQL Server 1.1 (16 bit)    -
4.21(WinNT) 1993  SQL Server 4.21           SQLNT
6.0         1995  SQL Server 6.0            SQL95
6.5         1996  SQL Server 6.5            Hydra
7.0         1998  SQL Server 7.0            Sphinx
 -          1999  SQL Server 7.0 OLAP Tools Palato mania
8.0         2000  SQL Server 2000           Shiloh
8.0         2003  SQL Server 2000 x64       Liberty
9.0         2005  SQL Server 2005           Yukon
10.0        2008  SQL Server 2008           Katmai
10.25       2010  SQL Azure DB              CloudDatabase
10.5        2010  SQL Server 2008 R2        Kilimanjaro (aka KJ)
11.0        2012  SQL Server 2012           Denali
12.0        2014  SQL Server 2014           Hekaton
13.0        2016  SQL Server 2016           ? 

SQL Server is available in multiple versions, typically identified by release year, and versions are subdivided into editions to distinguish between product functionality. The latest released version is SQL Server 2017.

Version     Year  Release Name             Codename
1.0 (OS/2)  1989  SQL Server 1.0 (16 bit)   Ashton-Tate 
1.1 (OS/2)  1991  SQL Server 1.1 (16 bit)    -
4.21(WinNT) 1993  SQL Server 4.21           SQLNT
6.0         1995  SQL Server 6.0            SQL95
6.5         1996  SQL Server 6.5            Hydra
7.0         1998  SQL Server 7.0            Sphinx
 -          1999  SQL Server 7.0 OLAP Tools Palato mania
8.0         2000  SQL Server 2000           Shiloh
8.0         2003  SQL Server 2000 x64       Liberty
9.0         2005  SQL Server 2005           Yukon
10.0        2008  SQL Server 2008           Katmai
10.25       2010  SQL Azure DB              CloudDatabase
10.5        2010  SQL Server 2008 R2        Kilimanjaro (aka KJ)
11.0        2012  SQL Server 2012           Denali
12.0        2014  SQL Server 2014           Hekaton
13.0        2016  SQL Server 2016           ? 
14.0        2017  SQL Server 2017           ? 
10 Updated the count of the categories listed in the tag, there were 6 items but it said 5 categories.
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9 2016 update
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8 Added some information about SQL Server 2016 Preview release.
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7 deleted 14 characters in body
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6 added 3222 characters in body
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5 Updated for SQL Server 2014 release, minor typographical edits
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4 Updated edition description
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3 added 71 characters in body
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2 added 172 characters in body
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1
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