I had to recently search information to encrypt the data without buying the Enterprise Edition, which is too much for our budget. Here's what I found:
Since SQL Server 2016 SP1, the Always Encrypted feature is included in express editions of SQL Server. It does not provide whole database encryption like TDE, DbDefence and NetLib Encryptionizer, you have to define the columns you want to encrypt. But it has the advantage of being done automatically. It can therefore be a nice alternative.
Another possibility is to encrypt directly the files with EFS or BitLocker. These two features are included in Windows.
For EFS, you have to define the files you want to encrypt, and only the user who encrypted the files can read/copy them (so you have to use the account which will run the SQL Server service.). But it can bring performance issues.
BitLocker encrypts the whole database but requires to have specific hardware: a TPM module in the server.
I have yet to test DbDefence and Encryptionizer but I'll update my answer when I do so.