First Words

You can safely ignore the sections below (and including) JOINs: Starting Off if you just want to take a crack of the code. The background and results just serve as context. Please look at the edit history before 2015-10-06 if you want to see what the code looked like initially.


Ultimately I want to calculate interpolated GPS coordinates for the transmitter (X or Xmit) based on the DateTime stamps of available GPS data in table SecondTable that directly flank the observation in table FirstTable.

My immediate objective to accomplish the ultimate objective is to figure out how to best join FirstTable to SecondTable to get those flanking time points. Later I can use that information I can calculate intermediate GPS coordinates assuming linear fitting along an equirectangular coordinate system (fancy words to say I don't care that the Earth is a sphere at this scale).


  1. Is there a more efficient way to generate the closest before-and-after time stamps?
    • Fixed by myself by just grabbing the "after," and then getting the "before" only as it related to the "after".
  2. Is there a more intuitive way that doesn't involve the (A<>B OR A=B) structure.
    • Byrdzeye provided the basic alternatives, however my "real-world" experience didn't line up with all 4 of his join strategies performing the same. But full credit to him for addressing the alternative join styles.
  3. Any other thoughts, tricks and advice you may have.
    • Thusfar both byrdzeye and Phrancis have been quite helpful in this regard. I found that Phrancis' advice was excellently laid out and provided help at a critical stage, so I'll give him the edge here.

I still would appreciate any additional help that I can receive with regard to question 3. Bulletpoints reflect who I believe helped me most on the individual question.

Table Definitions

Semi-visual representation


  RecTStamp | DateTime  --can contain milliseconds via VBA code (see Ref 1) 
  ReceivID  | LONG
  XmitID    | TEXT(25)
Keys and Indices
  PK_DT     | Primary, Unique, No Null, Compound
    XmitID    | ASC
    RecTStamp | ASC
    ReceivID  | ASC
  UK_DRX    | Unique, No Null, Compound
    RecTStamp | ASC
    ReceivID  | ASC
    XmitID    | ASC


  X_ID      | LONG AUTONUMBER -- seeded after main table has been created and already sorted on the primary key
  XTStamp   | DateTime --will not contain partial seconds
  Latitude  | Double   --these are in decimal degrees, not degrees/minutes/seconds
  Longitude | Double   --this way straight decimal math can be performed
Keys and Indices
  PK_D      | Primary, Unique, No Null, Simple
    XTStamp   | ASC
  UIDX_ID   | Unique, No Null, Simple
    X_ID      | ASC

ReceiverDetails table

  ReceivID                      | LONG
  Receiver_Location_Description | TEXT -- NULL OK
  Beginning                     | DateTime --no partial seconds
  Ending                        | DateTime --no partial seconds
  Lat                           | DOUBLE
  Lon                           | DOUBLE
Keys and Indicies
  PK_RID  | Primary, Unique, No Null, Simple
    ReceivID | ASC

ValidXmitters table

Field (and primary key)
  XmitID    | TEXT(25) -- primary, unique, no null, simple

SQL fiddle...

...so that you can play with the table definitions and code This question is for MSAccess, but as Phrancis pointed out, there is no SQL fiddle style for Access. So, you should be able to go here to see my table definitions and code based on Phrancis' answer:
http://sqlfiddle.com/#!6/e9942/4 (external link)

JOINs: Starting off

My current "inner guts" JOIN Strategy

First create a FirstTable_rekeyed with column order and compound primary key (RecTStamp, ReceivID, XmitID) all indexed/sorted ASC. I also created indexes on each column individually. Then fill it like so.

INSERT INTO FirstTable_rekeyed (RecTStamp, ReceivID, XmitID)
  FROM FirstTable
  WHERE XmitID IN (SELECT XmitID from ValidXmitters)
  ORDER BY RecTStamp, ReceivID, XmitID;

The above query fills the new table with 153006 records and returns within a matter of 10 seconds or so.

The following completes within a second or two when this whole method is wrapped in a "SELECT Count(*) FROM ( ... )" when the TOP 1 subquery method is used

    (SELECT TOP 1 XmitGPS.X_ID FROM SecondTable as XmitGPS WHERE ReceiverRecord.RecTStamp < XmitGPS.XTStamp ORDER BY XmitGPS.X_ID) AS AfterXmit_ID
    FROM FirstTable_rekeyed AS ReceiverRecord
    -- INNER JOIN SecondTable AS XmitGPS ON (ReceiverRecord.RecTStamp < XmitGPS.XTStamp)
         GROUP BY RecTStamp, ReceivID, XmitID;
-- No separate join needed for the Top 1 method, but it would be required for the other methods. 
-- Additionally no restriction of the returned set is needed if I create the _rekeyed table.
-- May not need GROUP BY either. Could try ORDER BY.
-- The three AfterXmit_ID alternatives below take longer than 3 minutes to complete (or do not ever complete).
  -- FIRST(XmitGPS.X_ID)
  -- MIN(XmitGPS.X_ID)
  -- MIN(SWITCH(XmitGPS.XTStamp > ReceiverRecord.RecTStamp, XmitGPS.X_ID, Null))

Previous "inner guts" JOIN query

First (fastish...but not good enough)

  MAX(IIF(B.XTStamp<= A.RecTStamp,B.XTStamp,Null)) as BeforeXTStamp,
  MIN(IIF(B.XTStamp > A.RecTStamp,B.XTStamp,Null)) as AfterXTStamp
FROM FirstTable as A
INNER JOIN SecondTable as B ON 
  (A.RecTStamp<>B.XTStamp OR A.RecTStamp=B.XTStamp)
GROUP BY A.RecTStamp, A.ReceivID, A.XmitID
  -- alternative for BeforeXTStamp MAX(-(B.XTStamp<=A.RecTStamp)*B.XTStamp)
  -- alternatives for AfterXTStamp (see "Aside" note below)
  -- 1.0/(MAX(1.0/(-(B.XTStamp>A.RecTStamp)*B.XTStamp)))
  -- -1.0/(MIN(1.0/((B.XTStamp>A.RecTStamp)*B.XTStamp)))

Second (slower)

  A.RecTStamp, AbyB1.XTStamp AS BeforeXTStamp, AbyB2.XTStamp AS AfterXTStamp
  (select top 1 B1.XTStamp, A1.RecTStamp 
   from SecondTable as B1, FirstTable as A1
   where B1.XTStamp<=A1.RecTStamp
   order by B1.XTStamp DESC) AS AbyB1 --MAX (time points before)
ON A.RecTStamp = AbyB1.RecTStamp) INNER JOIN 
  (select top 1 B2.XTStamp, A2.RecTStamp 
   from SecondTable as B2, FirstTable as A2
   where B2.XTStamp>A2.RecTStamp
   order by B2.XTStamp ASC) AS AbyB2 --MIN (time points after)
ON A.RecTStamp = AbyB2.RecTStamp; 


I have a telemetry table (aliased as A) of just under 1 million entries with a compound primary key based on a DateTime stamp, a Transmitter ID and a Recording Device ID. Due to circumstances beyond my control, my SQL language is the standard Jet DB in Microsoft Access (users will use 2007 and later versions). Only about 200,000 of these entries are relevant to the query because of the Transmitter ID.

There is a second telemetry table (alias B) that involves approximately 50,000 entries with a single DateTime primary key

For the first step, I focused on finding the closest timestamps to the stamps in the first table from the second table.

JOIN Results

Quirks that I've Discovered...

...along the way during debugging

It feels really odd to be writing the JOIN logic as FROM FirstTable as A INNER JOIN SecondTable as B ON (A.RecTStamp<>B.XTStamp OR A.RecTStamp=B.XTStamp) which as @byrdzeye pointed out in a comment (that has since disappeared) is a form of cross-join. Note that substituting LEFT OUTER JOIN for INNER JOIN in the code above appears to make no impact in the quantity or identity of the lines returned. I also can't seem to leave off the ON clause or say ON (1=1). Just using a comma to join (rather than INNER or LEFT OUTER JOIN) results in Count(select * from A) * Count(select * from B) rows returned in this query, rather than just one line per table A, as the (A<>B OR A=B) explicit JOIN returns. This is clearly not suitable. FIRST doesn't seem to be available to use given a compound primary key type.

The Second JOIN style, although arguably more legible, suffers from being slower. This may be because an additional two inner JOINs are required against the larger table as well as the two CROSS JOINs found in both options.

Aside: Replacing the IIF clause with MIN/MAX appears to return the same number of entries.
works for the "Before" (MAX) timestamp, but doesn't work directly for the "After" (MIN) as follows:
because the minimum is always 0 for the FALSE condition. This 0 is less than any post-epoch DOUBLE (which a DateTime field is a subset of in Access and that this calculation transforms the field into). The IIF and MIN/MAX methods The alternates proposed for the AfterXTStamp value work because division by zero (FALSE) generates null values, which the aggregate functions MIN and MAX skip over.

Next Steps

Taking this further, I wish to find the timestamps in the second table that directly flank the timestamps in the first table and perform a linear interpolation of the data values from the second table based on the time distance to those points (i.e. if the timestamp from the first table is 25% of the way between the "before" and "after", I would like 25% of the calculated value to come from 2nd table value data associated with the "after" point and 75% from the "before"). Using the revised join type as part of the inner guts, and after the suggested answers below I produce...

        StrDateIso8601Msec(AvgGPS.RecTStamp) AS RecTStamp_ms,
        -- StrDateIso8601MSec is a VBA function returning a TEXT string in yyyy-mm-dd hh:nn:ss.lll format
        RD.Lat AS Receiver_Lat,
        RD.Lon AS Receiver_Lon,
        AvgGPS.Before_Lat * (1 - AvgGPS.AfterWeight) + AvgGPS.After_Lat * AvgGPS.AfterWeight AS Xmit_Lat,
        AvgGPS.Before_Lon * (1 - AvgGPS.AfterWeight) + AvgGPS.After_Lon * AvgGPS.AfterWeight AS Xmit_Lon,
        AvgGPS.RecTStamp AS RecTStamp_basic
        GPSBefore.Latitude AS Before_Lat, 
        GPSBefore.Longitude AS Before_Lon,
        GPSAfter.Latitude AS After_Lat, 
        GPSAfter.Longitude AS After_Lon,
        ( (AfterTimestampID.RecTStamp - GPSBefore.XTStamp) / (GPSAfter.XTStamp - GPSBefore.XTStamp) ) AS AfterWeight
        FROM (
               (SELECT TOP 1 XmitGPS.X_ID FROM SecondTable as XmitGPS WHERE ReceiverRecord.RecTStamp < XmitGPS.XTStamp ORDER BY XmitGPS.X_ID) AS AfterXmit_ID
             FROM FirstTable AS ReceiverRecord 
             -- WHERE ReceiverRecord.XmitID IN (select XmitID from ValidXmitters)
             GROUP BY RecTStamp, ReceivID, XmitID
            ) AS AfterTimestampID INNER JOIN SecondTable AS GPSAfter ON AfterTimestampID.AfterXmit_ID = GPSAfter.X_ID
        ) INNER JOIN SecondTable AS GPSBefore ON AfterTimestampID.AfterXmit_ID = GPSBefore.X_ID + 1
    ) AS AvgGPS INNER JOIN ReceiverDetails AS RD ON (AvgGPS.ReceivID = RD.ReceivID) AND (AvgGPS.RecTStamp BETWEEN RD.Beginning AND RD.Ending)
    ORDER BY AvgGPS.RecTStamp, AvgGPS.ReceivID;

...which returns 152928 records, conforming (at least approximately) to the final number of expected records. Run time is probably 5-10 minutes on my i7-4790, 16GB RAM, no SSD, Win 8.1 Pro system.

Reference 1: MS Access Can Handle Millisecond Time Values--Really and accompanying source file [08080011.txt]


3 Answers 3


I must first compliment you on your courage to do something like this with an Access DB, which from my experience is very difficult to do anything SQL-like. Anyways, on to the review.

First join

Your IIF field selections might benefit from using a Switch statement instead. It seems to be sometimes the case, especially with things SQL, that a SWITCH (more commonly known as CASE in typical SQL) is quite fast when just making simple comparisons in the body of a SELECT. The syntax in your case would be almost identical, although a switch can be expanded to cover a large chunk of comparisons in one field. Something to consider.

    expr1, val1,
    expr2, val2,
    val3        -- default value or "else"

A switch can also help readability, in larger statements. In context:

  MAX(SWITCH(B.XTStamp <= A.RecTStamp,B.XTStamp,Null)) as BeforeXTStamp,
  --alternatively MAX(-(B.XTStamp<=A.RecTStamp)*B.XTStamp) as BeforeXTStamp,
  MIN(SWITCH(B.XTStamp>A.RecTStamp,B.XTStamp,Null)) as AfterXTStamp

As for the join itself, I think (A.RecTStamp<>B.XTStamp OR A.RecTStamp=B.XTStamp) is about as good as you're going to get, given what you are trying to do. It's not that fast, but I wouldn't expect it to be either.

Second join

You said this is slower. It's also less readable from a code standpoint. Given equally satisfactory result sets between 1 and 2, I'd say go for 1. At least it's obvious what you are trying to do that way. Subqueries are often not very fast (though often unavoidable) especially in this case you are throwing in an extra join in each, which must certainly complicate the execution plan.

One remark, I saw that you used old ANSI-89 join syntax. It's best to avoid that, the performance will be same or better with the more modern join syntax, and they are less ambiguous or easier to read, harder to make mistakes.

  (select top 1 B1.XTStamp, A1.RecTStamp 
   from SecondTable as B1
   inner join FirstTable as A1
     on B1.XTStamp <= A1.RecTStamp
   order by B1.XTStamp DESC) AS AbyB1 --MAX (time points before)

Naming things

I think the way your things are named is unhelpful at best, and cryptic at worst. A, B, A1, B1 etc. as table aliases I think could be better. Also, I think the field names are not very good, but I realize you may not have control over this. I will just quickly quote The Codeless Code on the topic of naming things, and leave it at that...

“Invective!” answered the priestess. “Verb your expletive nouns!”

"Next steps" query

I couldn't make much sense of it how it was written, I had to take it to a text editor and do some style changes to make it more readable. I know Access' SQL editor is beyond clunky, so I usually write my queries in a good editor like Notepad++ or Sublime Text. Some of the stylistic changes I applied to make it more readable:

  • 4 spaces indent instead of 2 spaces
  • Spaces around mathematical and comparison operators
  • More natural placing of braces and indentation (I went with Java-style braces, but could also be C-style, at your preference)

So as it turns out, this is a very complicated query indeed. To make sense of it, I have to start from the innermost query, your ID data set, which I understand is the same as your First Join. It returns the IDs and timestamps of the devices where the before/after timestamps are the closest, within the subset of devices you are interested in. So instead of ID why not call it ClosestTimestampID.

Your Det join is used only once:

enter image description here

The rest of the time, it only joins the values you already have from ClosestTimestampID. So instead we should be able to just do this:

    ) AS ClosestTimestampID
    INNER JOIN SecondTable AS TL1 
        ON ClosestTimestampID.BeforeXTStamp = TL1.XTStamp) 
    INNER JOIN SecondTable AS TL2 
        ON ClosestTimestampID.AfterXTStamp = TL2.XTStamp
    WHERE ClosestTimestampID.XmitID IN (<limited subset S>)

Maybe not be a huge performance gain, but anything we can do to help the poor Jet DB optimizer will help!

I can't shake the feeling that the calculations/algorithm for BeforeWeight and AfterWeight which you use to interpolate could be done better, but unfortunately I'm not very good with those.

One suggestion to avoid crashing (although it's not ideal depending on your application) would be to break out your nested subqueries into tables of their own and update those when needed. I'm not sure how often you need your source data to be refreshed, but if it is not too often you might think of writing some VBA code to schedule an update of the tables and derived tables, and just leave your outermost query to pull from those tables instead of the original source. Just a thought, like I said not ideal but given the tool you may not have a choice.

Everything together:

    StrDateIso8601Msec(InGPS.RecTStamp) AS RecTStamp_ms,
       -- StrDateIso8601MSec is a VBA function returning a TEXT string in yyyy-mm-dd hh:nn:ss.lll format
    RD.Lat AS Receiver_Lat,
    RD.Lon AS Receiver_Lon,
    InGPS.Before_Lat * InGPS.BeforeWeight + InGPS.After_Lat * InGPS.AfterWeight AS Xmit_Lat,
    InGPS.Before_Lon * InGPS.BeforeWeight + InGPS.After_Lon * InGPS.AfterWeight AS Xmit_Lon,
    InGPS.RecTStamp AS RecTStamp_basic
        TL1.Latitude AS Before_Lat, 
        TL1.Longitude AS Before_Lon,
        (1 - ((ClosestTimestampID.RecTStamp - ClosestTimestampID.BeforeXTStamp) 
            / (ClosestTimestampID.AfterXTStamp - ClosestTimestampID.BeforeXTStamp))) AS BeforeWeight,
        TL2.Latitude AS After_Lat, 
        TL2.Longitude AS After_Lon,
        (     (ClosestTimestampID.RecTStamp - ClosestTimestampID.BeforeXTStamp) 
            / (ClosestTimestampID.AfterXTStamp - ClosestTimestampID.BeforeXTStamp)) AS AfterWeight
        FROM (((
                MAX(SWITCH(B.XTStamp <= A.RecTStamp, B.XTStamp, Null)) AS BeforeXTStamp,
                MIN(SWITCH(B.XTStamp > A.RecTStamp, B.XTStamp, Null)) AS AfterXTStamp
            FROM FirstTable AS A
            INNER JOIN SecondTable AS B 
                ON (A.RecTStamp <> B.XTStamp OR A.RecTStamp = B.XTStamp)
            WHERE A.XmitID IN (<limited subset S>)
            GROUP BY A.RecTStamp, ReceivID, XmitID
        ) AS ClosestTimestampID
        INNER JOIN FirstTable AS Det 
            ON (Det.XmitID = ClosestTimestampID.XmitID) 
            AND (Det.ReceivID = ClosestTimestampID.ReceivID) 
            AND (Det.RecTStamp = ClosestTimestampID.RecTStamp)) 
        INNER JOIN SecondTable AS TL1 
            ON ClosestTimestampID.BeforeXTStamp = TL1.XTStamp) 
        INNER JOIN SecondTable AS TL2 
            ON ClosestTimestampID.AfterXTStamp = TL2.XTStamp
        WHERE Det.XmitID IN (<limited subset S>)
    ) AS InGPS
INNER JOIN ReceiverDetails AS RD 
    ON (InGPS.ReceivID = RD.ReceivID) 
    AND (InGPS.RecTStamp BETWEEN <valid parameters from another table>)
ORDER BY StrDateIso8601Msec(InGPS.RecTStamp), InGPS.ReceivID;
  • Added additional attributes and filter conditions.
  • Any form of cross join is eliminated by using min and max nested queries. This is the biggest performance gain.
  • The min and max flank values returned by the inner most nested query are primary key values (scans) that are used to retrieve additional flank attributes (lat and lon) using a seek for final calculations (access does have an apply equivalent).
  • The primary tables attributes are retrieved and filtered in the innermost query and should help performance.
  • There is no need to format (StrDateIso8601Msec) the time value for sorting. Using the datetime value from the table is equivilant.

SQL Server Execution Plans (because Access can't show this)
Without the final order by because its expensive:
Clustered Index Scan [ReceiverDetails].[PK_ReceiverDetails] Cost 16%
Clustered Index Seek [FirstTable].[PK_FirstTable] Cost 19%
Clustered Index Seek [SecondTable].[PK_SecondTable] Cost 16%
Clustered Index Seek [SecondTable].[PK_SecondTable] Cost 16%
Clustered Index Seek [SecondTable].[PK_SecondTable] [TL2] Cost 16%
Clustered Index Seek [SecondTable].[PK_SecondTable] [TL1] Cost 16%

With the final order by:
Sort Cost 36%
Clustered Index Scan [ReceiverDetails].[PK_ReceiverDetails] Cost 10%
Clustered Index Seek [FirstTable].[PK_FirstTable] Cost 12%
Clustered Index Seek [SecondTable].[PK_SecondTable] Cost 10%
Clustered Index Seek [SecondTable].[PK_SecondTable] Cost 10%
Clustered Index Seek [SecondTable].[PK_SecondTable] [TL2] Cost 10%
Clustered Index Seek [SecondTable].[PK_SecondTable] [TL1] Cost 10%


    --,StrDateIso8601Msec(InGPS.RecTStamp) AS RecTStamp_ms
,[TL1].[Latitude] * (1 - ((ClosestTimestampID.RecTStamp - ClosestTimestampID.BeforeXTStamp) / (ClosestTimestampID.AfterXTStamp - ClosestTimestampID.BeforeXTStamp))) + [TL2].[Latitude] * ((ClosestTimestampID.RecTStamp - ClosestTimestampID.BeforeXTStamp) / (ClosestTimestampID.AfterXTStamp - ClosestTimestampID.BeforeXTStamp)) AS Xmit_Lat
,[TL1].[Longitude] * (1 - ((ClosestTimestampID.RecTStamp - ClosestTimestampID.BeforeXTStamp) / (ClosestTimestampID.AfterXTStamp - ClosestTimestampID.BeforeXTStamp))) + [TL2].[Longitude] * ((ClosestTimestampID.RecTStamp - ClosestTimestampID.BeforeXTStamp) / (ClosestTimestampID.AfterXTStamp - ClosestTimestampID.BeforeXTStamp)) AS Xmit_Lon
    ,ClosestTimestampID.RecTStamp as RecTStamp_basic
from (
                        select max(XTStamp) as val
                        from SecondTable
                        where XTStamp <= FirstTable.RecTStamp
                     ) as BeforeXTStamp
                        select min(XTStamp) as val
                        from SecondTable
                        where XTStamp > FirstTable.RecTStamp
                     ) as AfterXTStamp
                from FirstTable
                inner join ReceiverDetails
                on ReceiverDetails.ReceivID = FirstTable.ReceivID
                where FirstTable.RecTStamp between #1/1/1990# and #1/1/2020#
                and FirstTable.XmitID in (100,110)
            ) as ClosestTimestampID
            inner join SecondTable as TL1
            on ClosestTimestampID.BeforeXTStamp = TL1.XTStamp
        inner join SecondTable as TL2
        on ClosestTimestampID.AfterXTStamp = TL2.XTStamp
order by ClosestTimestampID.RecTStamp, ClosestTimestampID.ReceivID;

Performance testing my query against the query containing the cross join.

FirstTable was loaded with 13 records and SecondTable with 1,000,000.
The execution plans for my query didn't change much from what has been posted.
Execution plans for the cross join:
Nested Loops Cost 81% using INNER JOIN SecondTable AS B ON (A.RecTStamp <> B.XTStamp OR A.RecTStamp = B.XTStamp
Nested Loops drops to 75% if using CROSS JOIN SecondTable AS B' or ',SecondTable AS B
Stream Aggregate 8%
Index Scan [SecondTable][UK_ID][B] 6%
Table Spool 5%
Several other Clustered Index Seek and Index Seeks (similar to my query as posted) with Cost of 0%.

Execution time is .007 and 8-9 seconds for my query and the CROSS JOIN.
Cost comparison 0% and 100%.

I loaded FirstTable with 50,000 records and a single record to ReceiverDetails for a join condition and ran my query.
50,013 returned between 0.9 and 1.0 second.

I ran second query with the cross join and allowed it to run for about 20 minutes before I killed it.
If the cross join query is filtered to return only the original 13, execution time is again, 8-9 seconds.
Placement of the filter condition was at inner most select, outer most select and both. No difference.

There is a difference between these two join conditions in favor of the CROSS JOIN, the first uses a predicate, the CROSS JOIN does not:
INNER JOIN SecondTable AS B ON (A.RecTStamp <> B.XTStamp OR A.RecTStamp = B.XTStamp) CROSS JOIN SecondTable AS B

  • Running the ClosestTimestampID portion on my system instantly returns 152928 records when encapsulated in a Count(*). My MSAccess locked up when returning the actual records at that stage - maybe temp tables from the other method were hogging all kinds of memory. I think the final query that I produce from your methodology will be very similar to what I'm currently using. Which I suppose is a good thing:)
    – mpag
    Oct 12, 2015 at 20:58
  • 1
    In your original comment you indicated that you got back some records immediately. This is important in regards to how access works, coming up with an Access strategy and setting expectations for execution time. Its called deferred execution. (It crashed when you hit last record.) What is the upper limit return record count expected to be in the final query?
    – byrdzeye
    Oct 13, 2015 at 17:05
  • I believe 152928
    – mpag
    Oct 13, 2015 at 17:42
  • What is the nature of the DateTime values in both tables as new records are added. Are they current time stamps or recent values or completely random?
    – byrdzeye
    Oct 15, 2015 at 17:32
  • the first table has DateTime stamps that are 2013 or more recent. The second table has DateTime stamps that are within a few months in mid 2015. If new values are added, they'll likely be (but not guaranteed to be) after the existing set. New values can be added to either table.
    – mpag
    Oct 15, 2015 at 17:45

Adding a second answer, not better than the first but without changing any of the requirements presented, there are a few of ways to beat Access into submission and appear snappy. 'Materialize' the complications a bit at a time effectivity using 'triggers'. Access tables do not have triggers so intercept and inject the crud processes.

--*** Create a table for flank values.
    create table Flank (
         RecTStamp      datetime not null
        ,BeforeXTStamp  datetime null
        ,AfterXTStamp   datetime null
        ,constraint PK_Flank primary key clustered ( RecTStamp asc )

--*** Create a FlankUpdateLoop sub. (create what is missing)
    -- loop until rowcount < 5000 or rowcount = 0
    -- a 5K limit appears to be manageable for Access, especially for the initial population.
    insert into Flank (
    select top 5000 FirstTable.RecTStamp
            select max(XTStamp) as val
            from SecondTable
            where XTStamp <= FirstTable.RecTStamp
            ) as BeforeXTStamp
            select min(XTStamp) as val
            from SecondTable
            where XTStamp > FirstTable.RecTStamp
            ) as AfterXTStamp
    from FirstTable
    left join Flank
        on FirstTable.RecTStamp = Flank.RecTStamp
    where Flank.RecTStamp is null;

--*** For FirstTable Adds, Changes or Deletes:
    delete from Flank where Flank.RecTStamp = CRUD_RecTStamp
    execute FlankUpdateLoop --See above. This will handle Adds, Changes or Deletes.

--*** For SecondTable Adds, Changes or Deletes:
    --delete from Flank where the old value is immediately before and after the new flank value.
    --They may or may not get be assigned a new value. Let FlankUpdate figure it out.

    --execute deletes for both beforextstamp and afterxtstamp
    --then update flank

    delete *
    from flank
    where beforextstamp between (
                    select min(beforextstamp)
                    from flank
                    where beforextstamp >= '3/16/2009 10:00:46 AM'
                    ) and (
                    select max(beforextstamp)
                    from flank
                    where beforextstamp <= '3/16/2009 10:00:46 AM'

    delete *
    from flank
    where afterxtstamp between (
                    select min(afterxtstamp)
                    from flank
                    where afterxtstamp >= '3/16/2009 10:00:46 AM'
                    ) and (
                    select max(afterxtstamp)
                    from flank
                    where afterxtstamp <= '3/16/2009 10:00:46 AM'

    execute FlankUpdateLoop

--*** Final Report Query***--
    --Should execute without issues including 'deferred execution' problem.
    --Add filters as needed.
    select FirstTable.XmitID
        ,BeforeTable.Latitude * (1 - ((FirstTable.RecTStamp - BeforeXTStamp) / (AfterXTStamp - BeforeXTStamp))) + AfterTable.Latitude * ((FirstTable.RecTStamp - BeforeXTStamp) / (AfterXTStamp - BeforeXTStamp)) as Xmit_Lat
        ,BeforeTable.Longitude * (1 - ((FirstTable.RecTStamp - BeforeXTStamp) / (AfterXTStamp - BeforeXTStamp))) + AfterTable.Longitude * ((FirstTable.RecTStamp - BeforeXTStamp) / (AfterXTStamp - BeforeXTStamp)) as Xmit_Lon
        ,FirstTable.RecTStamp as RecTStamp_basic
    from (((
    inner join Flank on FirstTable.RecTStamp = Flank.RecTStamp)
    inner join SecondTable as BeforeTable on Flank.BeforeXTStamp = BeforeTable.XTStamp)
    inner join SecondTable as AfterTable on Flank.AfterXTStamp = AfterTable.XTStamp)
    inner join ReceiverDetails on FirstTable.ReceivID = ReceiverDetails.ReceivID
    order by FirstTable.RecTStamp;

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