Here's something strange: there is a large table named "products" which is partitioned with inheritance such that there are two children: products_active and products_inactive, and the constraint is that in products_active, status=1, and products_inactive gets all the other statuses.

There is a large query which joins a bunch of tables, of which this is the first part:

  products.id, products.status, products.brand_id, products.name, products.description, products.data, products.website,
  products.packaging, products.container, products.country_of_origin, products.category_id, products.product_type_id, products.tsv_keywords,
  COUNT(prices.id) as prices_count,
  ROUND(AVG(currency_convert(prices.amount,currencies.currency_code,'USD')),2) as avg_price,
  ROUND(MAX(currency_convert(prices.amount,currencies.currency_code,'USD')),2) as high_price,
  ROUND(MIN(currency_convert(prices.amount,currencies.currency_code,'USD')),2) as low_price,
  ts_rank(tsv_keywords, plainto_tsquery('merlot')) as rank,
  ROUND(AVG(ST_Distance(ST_GeographyFromText('SRID=4326;POINT(0.001 0.001)'),ST_GeographyFromText('SRID=4326;POINT(' || stores.longitude || ' ' || stores.latitude || ')')))) AS distance
  JOIN product_types ON products.product_type_id = product_types.id
  JOIN categories ON products.category_id = categories.id
  JOIN prices ON prices.product_id = products.id 
  JOIN currencies ON prices.currency_id = currencies.id
  JOIN stores ON prices.store_id = stores.id
  JOIN brands ON products.brand_id = brands.id
  JOIN merchants ON stores.merchant_id = merchants.id
  JOIN manufacturers ON brands.manufacturer_id = manufacturers.id
, delivery_zones

(full query here: http://pastebin.com/VjJPTQWj)

The problem is: note the FROM products... part, if I replace this with FROM products_active AS products, the query errors out with:

ERROR:  column "products.status" must appear in the GROUP BY clause or be used in an aggregate function
LINE 2:   products.id, products.status, products.brand_id, products....

The two tables (products and products_active) have identical structures! They are inherited from one another!

Am I missing a subtlety in aliasing table names?

  • 2
    Is products.id a primary/unique key in one table but not in the other? You say they have identical structures, but that doesn't mean they're the same.. Dec 16, 2015 at 21:03
  • It's a unique index in the child tables: for products it's: "products_pkey" PRIMARY KEY, btree (id) , and for products_active: "index_products_on_active_id" UNIQUE, btree (id)
    – Ivan Voras
    Dec 16, 2015 at 21:06
  • 1
    I'll let someone else with more detailed knowledge answer, but I'll just say that normally you have to GROUP BY on ANY column that's not used in an aggregate. You should have status, brand_id, name, description, etc ALL in your GROUP BY clause. PostgreSQL is just doing something special to let you get away with only having the id column there. (I'm guessing it's because it's the PRIMARY KEY .. but again, someone else can answer authoritatively) Dec 16, 2015 at 21:14
  • 1
    Another thing I will point out is that a UNIQUE INDEX is not the same as a UNIQUE CONSTRAINT, which I'm sure is also factoring into the behavior. (CONSTRAINTs are probably treated differently than INDEXEs) They certainly behave very similarly, but ... Please see stackoverflow.com/questions/23542794/… Dec 16, 2015 at 21:28
  • 2
    @JoishiBodio: Actually, allowing non-GROUP BY columns to be referenced in SELECT without aggregation in cases like this is per SQL standard, as mentioned e.g. in this answer.
    – Andriy M
    Dec 17, 2015 at 7:58

2 Answers 2


The problem is that the 2 tables are not identical.

The first has (id) as the PRIMARY KEY while the second has (id) a UNIQUE constraint (or index, doesn't matter). This might seem like a minor detail but it isn't.

Postgres has added in version 9.1, a feature were functionally dependent columns need not be mentioned in a GROUP BY clause (if the column they depend on is mentioned in the GROUP BY) and still used in the HAVING, SELECT and ORDER BY clauses. However the implementation is not 100% complete. It doesn't identify all possible functional dependencies but only those coming from PRIMARY KEY constraints. While a UNIQUE constraint with all columns NOT NULL does not differ in any meaningful way from a PRIMARY KEY constraint, the implementation does not consider UNIQUE constraints.

So, for example, with these two very similar tables (test in SQLfiddle):

  ( id INT NOT NULL,
    name TEXT NOT NULL,
    status TEXT NOT NULL,
    PRIMARY KEY (id)
  ) ;

CREATE TABLE products_active
  ( id INT NOT NULL,
    name TEXT NOT NULL,
    status TEXT NOT NULL,
    UNIQUE (id)
  ) ;

The query will succeed for the first table:

SELECT p.id, p.status, p.name
FROM products AS p
GROUP BY p.id ;

while it will fail for the second:

SELECT p.id, p.status, p.name
FROM products_active AS p
GROUP BY p.id ;


ERROR: column "p.status" must appear in the GROUP BY clause or be used in an aggregate function


As one of the commenters said: the original query should have had a "GROUP BY" and PostgreSQL will accept a query without it in certain circumstances (see Why do wildcards in GROUP BY statements not work?). This, combined with the information that UNIQUE indexes are not the same as PRIMARY KEYs (PK's disallow NULLs), solved this question.

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