I know all the SQL Server versions from 2005 to 2014 have an express edition. This question is specifically about SSMS. There was an SSMS Express 2005, 2008, and 2008 R2, but I haven't found any later version.
The SSMSE was different in what it can manage as documented here.
Express version of Management Studio, since 2012 Service Pack 1, has been a fully functional product with absolutely no differences