This is an older post, but it was near the top when I was searching for "Table-Valued Parameter as Output parameter for stored procedure". While it is my understanding that you cannot pass a table-valued parameter as an output parameter, I would imagine the goal is to use that table-valued output parameter as a table-valued input parameter in another procedure. I will show an example for how I made this work.
First, create some data to work with:
create table tbl1
create table tbl2
insert into tbl1
insert into tbl2
Next, create a stored procedure to capture some of the data. Normally, this would be where you are trying to create a table-valued output parameter.
create procedure usp_OUTPUT1
select id from tbl1 where gender = @gender
Additionally, you will want to create a data type (table type) where the data from the first stored procedure can be passed as the input parameter for the next stored procedure.
create type tblType as Table (id int)
Next, create the second stored procedure that will accept the table-valued parameter.
create procedure usp_OUTPUT2
@tblType tblType readonly --referencing the type created and specify readonly
select lname from tbl2 where id in (select id from @tblType)
Granted, this is not a true table-valued output parameter, but it will likely produce results similar to what you would be looking for. Declare your table-valued parameter, fill it with data by executing the stored procedure into it, then use it as the input variable for the next procedure.
Declare @tblType tblType
insert into @tblType execute usp_OUTPUT1 'm'
execute usp_OUTPUT2 @tblType