Along with the integrated R services on SQL Server 2016, Microsoft is also offering enterprise level Microsoft R Server as a standalone installation.
Some of the documentation on MSDN shows that the standalone MS R Server is different from a data science Microsoft R Client.
This is a picture from the MSDN page (bottom left): https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/mt696069.aspx
The data science client link takes you here: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/mt696067.aspx
But the set-up wizard comments as if they're both the same thing.
If anyone has any clarity on this, please let know.