Plan A: You charge your client an arm an leg to develop code to keep track of diffs, avoid dup keys, upload data, etc.
Plan B: Multi-source replication (available at least in MariaDB).
With Multi-source, each offline laptop can be a "Master". The "online server" is a Slave. All writes must be done on the Master(s). Not being able to write to the online Slave should not be an issue, just add a extra, centralized, offline Master in HQ if needed.
As for dup keys -- You must design the schema to avoid any issues like that. This probably means no
FOREIGN KEYS. It may mean each offline Master has separate tables (or separate a database) for anything that can't live without things that will cause trouble. But then, that means having some sort of resolution code after each connect. (The upload is merely Replication doing its thing.)
Plan C: NDB Cluster. This is a significantly different Engine available under MySQL. The set up is complex. However, it provides a different model for replication -- "eventual consistency". Rather than hanging on a dup key (etc), you provide rules for what to do in such situations. These rules are automatically applied when replication leads to a conflict.
Plan D: Galera Cluster (built into MariaDB 10.x; manually installable on MySQL) -- With this clustering technology, "nodes" can come and go; when they reconnect they automatically get back in sync. But... There needs to always be a quorum, that is more than 50% online. Although you can write to any node, you cannot write to nodes that are not part of the quorum.
Plan E: Convince the client to stay connected. Or not do any writes when disconnected. In this case, the offline machine can be a readonly Slave. Writes must wait for connection to the remote Master.
Note: In any case, you should write the application with an explicit eye to what app actions need writes versus what can be readonly. Suggest you go as far as to have two separate connections -- one for writes and associated reads, one for plain reads. This will facilitate whatever Plan you pick.
Which do I recommend? I have not heard enough about your situation to say which.