Since there seems to be no way to strip the procedure definition from comments without parsing cf. this, there seem to be no reliably T-SQL query to answer this question.
Or can I get this information from any system view?
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No. There is no flag or metadata about "UsesDynamicSQL"
You have to search the definition...
There are 2 ways to execute dynamic SQL
You can search for the first in sys.sql_modules, the 2nd using LIKE
WHERE REPLACE(definition, ' ', '') LIKE '%EXEC(%' OR REPLACE(definition, ' ', '') LIKE '%EXECUTE(%' OR definition LIKE '%sp[_]executesql%'