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I have a 2 node AG with a synchronous replica. I want to know whether I can safely add another database to the synchronous replica node, without adding it to the Availability Group.

Does doing this carry any caveats?

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That should not cause any issues at all. However, when connecting to a database outside of the AG, you will need to reference the server name instead of the AG Listener since the listener will always redirect you to the primary replica and your non-AG database will not always be on the primary replica.

Edit: Also keep in mind that actively using a secondary replica will warrant a need to license it.

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  • When you say "and your non-AG database will not always be on the primary replica", do you actually mean "your non-AG database will always be on the secondary replica". In other words, soft-failover (as opposed to a failure of the secondary replica server itself) will keep the non-AG database on the secondary node, and unaffected by the failover, as long as you're not using the AOAG listener?
    – Peter
    Commented May 24, 2017 at 17:14
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    Say you have replicas REP1 and REP2 where REP1 is currently your primary replica. Now you create your non-AG database on the secondary replica, REP2. At this point, you'll never connect to your non-AG database using the listener because the listener will take you to REP1. If a failover occurs, your non-AG database will become part of the primary replica, now REP2. At this point, the listener will take you to your non-AG database. That's what I meant by "your non-AG database will not always be on the primary replica". And yes, the non-AG database will be unaffected by failovers. Commented May 24, 2017 at 17:22

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