I have only found this tutorial here which seems to be most recent, other tutorials it seems are outdated and don't work anymore.
I want to create a sharded, non-replicated cluster on my dev machine and I couldn't find how to do it in Mongo 3.4
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You can have one member replica set as a minimum. You will also need config server to keep track of shards.
For testing and development, you can deploy a sharded cluster with a minimum number of components. These non-production clusters have the following components:
A replica set config server with one member. At least one shard as a single-member replica set. One mongos instance.
WARNING: Use the test cluster architecture for testing and development only.
One node replica sets are fine, but you don't need even that. Normal nodes are fine. Check here simple steps to create sharded cluster.