I have a basic doubt about logical data independence. I read that in logical independence, we can remove attributes from relation without affecting external schema.

How can the removal of attribute not affect external schema? Suppose we have a student relation with marks attribute and if we remove marks attribute, external view will also be affected right?

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    Where did you read that? Logical independence may refer to several things so a bit of context may help to understand your question. Clearly, you can't remove attributes without consequence if they are exposed and used. Perhaps the paper you are reading is about encapsulation and some form of API for the outside world? – Lennart Aug 6 '17 at 6:41
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    @Zephyr Post clarifications as edits to the Question rather than as Comments. – Basil Bourque Aug 7 '17 at 4:37

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