Edited for clarity and consistency:
By the database itself? No. However, you can through the connection (what you should be trying to manage anyways) called the Resource Governor.
- Physical IO, depending on the version.
There are a number of Concepts which the Docs explain in greater detail:
- a group of default, internal (cannot be changed), and custom made groups that have a set value on the amount of CPU, Memory, and Physical IO that a session may consume.
- a class of session requests that have similar characteristics. These are mapped to The appropriate resource pool and are set at the time of connection settings. Meaning the default database connect is used not the first USE statement or any statement afterwards.
The governor must be activated Or configured. A governor specific function is run against the connection's default settings and map to a workload group.
. This workload is attached to a specific resource pool where the limitations are enforced on all subsequent sessions that occur out of the connection.
This function is the most important part and you should keep it simple.
For more reading, visit the Docs:
Main Page -Resource Governor
Resource governor Resource pool
Research governor Workload group
Resource governor classifier function | Docs Microsoft