Hopefully, there's a very "simple" answer to this question:
- Can a SQL Server 2012 subscription database in a transactional replication setup also be used for publication?
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It sounds like you might need to consider Peer to Peer Replication. You didn't provide too much info on the current setup.
See if this address your needs: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/relational-databases/replication/transactional/peer-to-peer-transactional-replication
It almost sounds like you want to implement multi-master replication. But not quite, as from the comments, I gather you want to filter the re-publication? Otherwise, you could have just added another subscription to the original publication... See this for more information: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/relational-databases/replication/publish/replication-publishing-model-overview
There is nothing stopping you from doing this, as you could just use the existing Distributor, and a filtered publication will work on the re-published database, as it would be a separate transaction-log. But "chaining" this type of topology is like asking for trouble...as alluded to earlier, a management-nightmare!