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I've a table with the following structure.

CREATE TABLE `wallet_details` (
  `id` varchar(32) NOT NULL,
  `status` varchar(16) NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`),
  KEY `idx_status` (`status`(3))
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;

It contains around 30 Million rows.

I need to run the following query on it:

select * from my_table where `status` = "UNASSIGNED" limit 1 for update

Following is the explain output of it:

mysql> explain select * from my_table where `status` = "UNASSIGNED" limit 1 for update;
+----+-------------+----------------+------------+------+---------------+------------+---------+-------+----------+----------+-------------+
| id | select_type | table          | partitions | type | possible_keys | key        | key_len | ref   | rows     | filtered | Extra       |
+----+-------------+----------------+------------+------+---------------+------------+---------+-------+----------+----------+-------------+
|  1 | SIMPLE      | my_table       | NULL       | ref  | idx_status    | idx_status | 11      | const | 12898668 |   100.00 | Using where |
+----+-------------+----------------+------------+------+---------------+------------+---------+-------+----------+----------+-------------+
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.09 sec)

The above query is not scaling very much and I wanted to understand how the above works, at which stage is the query behaving undesirably/heavily, and how can I improve its performance.

Few of my questions are:

  1. Would the query run through all of the 12 million rows before fetching the final row (see query has limit 1 condition)?
  2. On how many rows would the read lock be on?
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  • Don't use "prefix indexes" (status(3)); they usually hurt more than they help.
  • Shrink the table size...
  • What kind of values are in id VARCHAR(32). (It is unusually to have such a bulky PRIMARY KEY.)
  • Change status from a multi-byte varchar to a 1-byte ENUM.
  • If there are other columns or indexes in the table, we need to see them in order to understand whether there are side issues.
  • What is the value of innodb_buffer_pool_size? How much RAM do you have?

  • The query will (based on the EXPLAIN) scan through the table until it finds the first entry with "UNASSIGNED". Without knowing the distribution of the data, I can't say when that would occur.

  • Eliminating the prefixing may speed things up.
  • Saying SELECT id instead of SELECT * may speed things up.
  • (I don't know how whether the rows before the first "UNASSIGNED" will be locked.)
  • You didn't say anything about the last 2 questions I asked. Any thoughts on them? – Pankaj Singhal Sep 30 '17 at 13:38
  • I added some on. At least get rid of the prefiixing and *. – Rick James Sep 30 '17 at 17:06

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