6

I'm using Postgres 9.6.1 on RDS, and seeing orders-of-magnitude higher write throughput than I expect to see. I'm seeing a WriteThroughput around 40,000,000 Bytes/Second. I've looked at the following to try to track down where it is coming from:

I installed pg_stat_statements and have been periodically running:

SELECT sum(shared_blks_dirtied) from pg_stat_statements

And it looks like my queries are only dirtying at most about 30 blocks per second. A block is 8kB, right? So that's only 240 kB per second. (I also checked temp blocks and local blocks and I'm barely dirtying them or writing them at all. I also confirmed that I'm not hitting the limit of unique statements that pg_stat_statements will track).

I'm also looking at my logs, and I see checkpoints running every 5 minutes about this size:

LOG:  checkpoint complete: wrote 8538 buffers (0.4%); 0 transaction log file(s) added, 0 removed, 3 recycled; write=269.825 s, sync=0.021 s, total=269.921 s; sync files=2349, longest=0.010 s, average=0.000 s; distance=39599 kB, estimate=39599 kB

So that's approximately 40 MB / 5 minutes = 133 kB per second, which is the same order of magnitude I'm seeing in pg_stat_statements.

So I'm a little confused... am I doing the math wrong, or is there somewhere else I should be looking to see what's generating all that write throughput?

One other thing to mention: I have a lot of tables and schemas: approximately 25,000 schemas and 2 million total relations. (And I create / drop new schemas a couple times a minute generally). I've found that autovacuum can't keep up with this, even with very aggressive configuration, so I am manually vacuuming and analyzing tables based on my write patterns, and I've adjusted the autovacuum thresholds upwards so that in practice my manual vacuuming almost always gets there before autovacuum runs on it. I've confirmed that my manual vacuums do show up in pg_stat-statements, so I'd assume that any writes they generate are already accounted for in my above analysis, but maybe not?

7

It turns out that the vast majority of my write throughput was coming from the stats collector. Because of the very high number of relations in my database, the stats data is unusually large. I was able to diagnose the problem by temporarily clearing the stats:

SELECT pg_stat_reset()

Which led to an immediate, dramatic drop in my write throughput. To solve the issue going forward, I've redirected my stats directory to a ram disk instead of to the hard drive, using this setting: http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonRDS/latest/UserGuide/CHAP_PostgreSQL.html#PostgreSQL.Concepts.General.FeatureSupport.RamDisk

The end result is that CloudWatch is now reporting around ~400 KB/s of throughput instead of 40 MB/s.

  • Out of interest - how did you come to this conclusion? Was there anything you were able to monitor to find this out? – Andy Smith Sep 24 '18 at 7:29
  • @AndySmith As far as I know there's no non-invasive way of seeing how much of your databases' writes is going to the stats file, at least on RDS. I was able to test the hypothesis that it was stats-file related by temporarily relieving the load via deleting all my stats data (SELECT pg_stat_reset()). I saw a 100x drop in my write iOPs immediately after issuing the command, so that was clear evidence that the stats file was the cause, and then I switched to using a ram disk (which requires a database restart). – josh Sep 25 '18 at 14:39

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.