Note: I am relatively new to managing an SQL database. I have done my fair share of reading, research, and experimentation, but it is possible that I am missing some fairly basic knowledge. I'm also not sure how to tag this question so if someone could add relevant tags that would be appreciated.
I am currently building an SQL database for a forum like website. Among other things, the website will contain pages with threads, basically a series of posts by different users.
Users on the website are identified by a unique ID (
char(36)) that is set once at registration and cannot be changed afterward. The user also has a username (
varchar(16)) that is just a screen name. This name is almost always unique between users, but not necessarily. The user can also change the name, but there is a hard limit of two weeks between any two username changes. All of this information, and a few other things like login details, are stored in one
Users table with the ID as a primary key.
There are multiple tables for the forum itself, but the one that is important for this question is the
Posts table (primary key is
'post_id' int(10) NOT NUll AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY. It contains one row for every time somebody makes a post on a thread, including responses to existing posts. As a result, whenever a user requests a thread, I query the
posts table for all posts matching that thread (I store a thread ID foreign key). My question now concerns storing a user who is the author of the post. When a thread is requested, I need to send the username (not ID) of the users that made different posts. However, I also need to make sure that changes in usernames do not cause the apparent author of a post to change. As far as I can tell I have two possibilities:
For storing the author of a post, I can store only the ID. However, this means that I will have to make quite a few requests to the
Userstable for the usernames of the various IDs of the posters. This seems highly inefficient, seeing that the usernames will change very rarely.
I can store both the author ID and the author username in the
Poststable. I can then go through the table and change all usernames among the posts (I can even set this up with a trigger, I believe). However, this opens the window for update anomalies, if the username stored for an ID in the
Userstable is different than in one of the posts. I can still use a trigger to prevent these anomalies at the database level, but from what I understand this should not be necessary in a well-designed database.
Which one of these two solutions (or something entirely different) should I use to both maintain efficiency and database normalization?
If it matters, I'm using the most recent version of MariaDB and accessing using PHP.