Database corruption can exist in the database,
FULL backups and
DIFF backups. This is because they contain data pages.
LOG backups are different and don't contain database corruption.
All of your backups are susceptible to file corruption, but that's different. We're talking database corruption here.
If you need to do a restore due to database corruption, do one last
LOG backup so that you can restore without data loss, called the tail.
Now time to start the restores. Start with the FULL backup that is before the last successful
DBCC CHECKDB. If you don't have a last successful
DBCC CHECKDB, you'll need to run it after each restore to see what's good and what's not.
Then apply a
DIFF backup if you have one that is relevant to the FULL you just restored.
Lastly, restore the entire
LOG chain since that
FULL if you didn't use a
DIFF) backup and then apply that final
LOG backup (the tail).
You didn't ask this question, but I'm including it anyway. It makes sense to have your
FULL backup job occur before the
DBCC CHECKDB job so that you know which backups are good if you ever encounter database corruption that requires you to do a restore.