Yes, you bet. Let's start with the open source First Responder Kit (disclaimer: I'm one of the script authors) - install sp_Blitz, and then:
sp_Blitz @CheckServerInfo = 1
And at the bottom, you get a bunch of information about your system:
I've taken the liberty of rearranging the columns a little in that screenshot because I want to show you the finding, details, and the CheckID.
When you see a CheckID that has information you want to use, open up the sp_Blitz script and do a search for that CheckID. For example, if you want to know how we're determining that you have 4 logical processors and 31GB RAM, do a control-F for 84 (the CheckID), and you'll see the dynamic management views (DMVs) where we're gathering that data from.
Check 84 is a great example because it requires different logic based on what version of SQL Server you're trying to check, too.
Rather than giving you the specific answers for each of the 4 questions you asked, I'm just teaching you this process because I bet if you need those 4 things, you probably need a lot more, too - and you'll find a lot of 'em in sp_Blitz. Hope that helps!