For a starter, here's the Microsoft Docs Page
As an aside, I suggest you do some reading into the mechanics of an availability group, purely so you can understand my answer. (Microsoft Docs Page)
As for the answer to your question, as normally in the case with questions around an RDBMS, it depends.
In this case is depends on what you mean by "...for data to appear"
Let's have a look at the columns in your question:
It is also worth noting that the System DMV you are referring to is at the database level
This time indicates the last time that the PRIMARY sent a Log Block to the available secondaries. This is the start of the data synchronisation process.
This indicates the last time that the secondary received a log block.
This indicates the last time that the secondary cached the recieved log block data to disk.
This is the time that the last LSN was redone on the target database.
This is the time of the last commit record was redone and reported back to the primary.
Of the above, there are various entry-points of the data into the secondary systems.
The data first enters the server into memory at last_received_time
The data first enters the server on disk at last_hardened_time
The data first enters the database data files at last_redone_time
The data first becomes committed and available for reading by queries (outside of strange NOLOCK situations) at last_commit_time
I suspect that the answer to your question is the latter of the 4 concepts. There is a small overhead to the time in this column however, due to the transmission time of the data between the SECONDARY and PRIMARY. This is likely to be unimportant in calculations for determining the speed of data throughput though.