Using Microsoft technologies/products is it possible to create a column store database with column family sets? That is each row being able to have a different number and type of columns.

Colmun Store Database

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It sounds like what you're looking for is a "non-relational database," often called a document or NoSQL database. Amazon defines that here:

What is a document database

A document database is a type of nonrelational database that is designed to store semistructured data as documents.

Microsoft has a cloud based product called Azure Cosmos DB, which you can read about here:

Introduction to Azure Cosmos DB

Keeping database schema and indexes in-sync with an application’s schema is especially painful for globally distributed apps. However, with Cosmos DB, you do not need to deal with schemas or indexes. The database engine is fully schema-agnostic.

Microsoft doesn't offer an on-premises version of this product.

SQL Server also has json and XML data types. You could serialize objects with this loosely structured format and store it in a column of this type, but the preferred approach would be to use Cosmos DB or another document database like mongodb or ravendb.

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    And Cosmos DB does have a Cassandra API for columnstore type model though behind the scenes everything is stored the same so it presumably doesn't have some of the benefits of a true columnstore – Martin Smith Jan 19 '19 at 22:23
  • @Martin Thanks, I didn't realize that! I'm actually pretty confused by the interchangeable way they seem to talk about "column store" and NoSQL in that article the OP linked. Mostly because I'm thinking of the (very different) SQL Server Columnstore feature. – Josh Darnell Jan 20 '19 at 2:22
  • I have learned that Microsoft SQL Server has dedicated JSON functions and both a compression algorithm and a search index type optimized for JSON since version 2016. These can be used to create the variable column NoSQL structure in SQL Server. I am creating a bit of a hybrid as the rest of the database is a strongly typed schema. – Edmund Jan 21 '19 at 19:51

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