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We are setting up a new server with Oracle database (Oracle 11g r2) for our ERP application. The new server is on VMWare, 256 GB RAM, 48 vCPUs, and SSD SAN storage (RAID 10) connected directly to the server through the fiber cable. The backup is restored and the database has started successfully. We are using this as a test to optimize memory usage and move it to production at a later stage.

The old physical server is 64 GB RAM, 12 CPUs, and local SATA Hard Drives.

Well, we cannot find any difference between the performance of both the servers.

The SGA_TARGET_SIZEand SGA_MAX_SIZE are set to 168G, DB_CACHE_SIZE is set to 100G, SHARED_POOL_SIZE is set to 40G to make use of the new resources on the server.

When the database is started I can see that the physical server memory usage in the system utilities is just 3.5GB out of 256GB.

The source and destination OS is Redhat Linux Enterprise 7.

ipcs -a returns the following:

------ Message Queues --------
key        msqid      owner      perms      used-bytes   messages

------ Shared Memory Segments --------
key        shmid      owner      perms      bytes      nattch     status
0x00000000 262144     oracle     600        524288     2          dest
0x00000000 491521     root       600        524288     2          dest
0x00000000 819202     root       600        4194304    2          dest
0x00000000 1867779    oracle     600        524288     2          dest
0x00000000 1048580    root       600        393216     2          dest
0x00000000 983045     oracle     600        393216     2          dest
0x9182bb00 3276806    oracle     660        178243239936 29                                                                                                                                                                                  
0x00000000 1966087    oracle     600        4194304    2          dest
0x00000000 1998856    oracle     600        524288     2          dest
0x00000000 1572873    root       600        524288     2          dest
0x00000000 2162698    oracle     600        393216     2          dest
0x00000000 3375115    oracle     600        20480      2          dest
0x00000000 2326541    oracle     600        524288     2          dest
0x00000000 2424846    oracle     600        524288     2          dest
0x00000000 2457615    oracle     600        3428352    2          dest
0x00000000 2719760    oracle     600        16384      2          dest
0x00000000 2752529    oracle     600        36864      2          dest
0x00000000 2785298    oracle     600        36864      2          dest
0x00000000 3342355    oracle     600        3428352    2          dest
0x00000000 3145748    oracle     600        4194304    2          dest

------ Semaphore Arrays --------
key        semid      owner      perms      nsems
0xbd757864 1703936    oracle     660        126
0xbd757865 1736705    oracle     660        126
0xbd757866 1769474    oracle     660        126
0xbd757867 1802243    oracle     660        126
0xbd757868 1835012    oracle     660        126

show parameters are as follows:

SQL> show parameters;

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY          boolean     FALSE
active_instance_count                integer
aq_tm_processes                      integer     0
archive_lag_target                   integer     0
asm_diskgroups                       string
asm_diskstring                       string
asm_power_limit                      integer     1
asm_preferred_read_failure_groups    string
audit_file_dest                      string      /home/oracle/app/oracle/admin/
                                                 ora10/adump
audit_sys_operations                 boolean     FALSE

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
audit_syslog_level                   string
audit_trail                          string      NONE
background_core_dump                 string      partial
background_dump_dest                 string      /home/oracle/app/oracle/diag/r
                                                 dbms/ora10/ora10/trace
backup_tape_io_slaves                boolean     FALSE
bitmap_merge_area_size               integer     1048576
blank_trimming                       boolean     FALSE
buffer_pool_keep                     string
buffer_pool_recycle                  string
cell_offload_compaction              string      ADAPTIVE

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
cell_offload_decryption              boolean     TRUE
cell_offload_parameters              string
cell_offload_plan_display            string      AUTO
cell_offload_processing              boolean     TRUE
cell_partition_large_extents         string      DEFAULT
circuits                             integer
client_result_cache_lag              big integer 3000
client_result_cache_size             big integer 0
cluster_database                     boolean     FALSE
cluster_database_instances           integer     1
cluster_interconnects                string

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
commit_logging                       string
commit_point_strength                integer     1
commit_wait                          string
commit_write                         string
compatible                           string      11.2.0.0.0
control_file_record_keep_time        integer     7
control_files                        string      /home/oracle/app/oracle/oradat
                                                 a/ora10/control01.ctl, /home/o
                                                 racle/app/oracle/flash_recover
                                                 y_area/ora10/control02.ctl
control_management_pack_access       string      DIAGNOSTIC+TUNING

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
core_dump_dest                       string      /home/oracle/app/oracle/diag/r
                                                 dbms/ora10/ora10/cdump
cpu_count                            integer     48
create_bitmap_area_size              integer     8388608
create_stored_outlines               string
cursor_sharing                       string      EXACT
cursor_space_for_time                boolean     FALSE
db_16k_cache_size                    big integer 0
db_2k_cache_size                     big integer 0
db_32k_cache_size                    big integer 0
db_4k_cache_size                     big integer 0

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
db_8k_cache_size                     big integer 0
db_block_buffers                     integer     0
db_block_checking                    string      FALSE
db_block_checksum                    string      TYPICAL
db_block_size                        integer     8192
db_cache_advice                      string      ON
db_cache_size                        big integer 100G
db_create_file_dest                  string
db_create_online_log_dest_1          string
db_create_online_log_dest_2          string
db_create_online_log_dest_3          string

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
db_create_online_log_dest_4          string
db_create_online_log_dest_5          string
db_domain                            string
db_file_multiblock_read_count        integer     128
db_file_name_convert                 string
db_files                             integer     200
db_flash_cache_file                  string
db_flash_cache_size                  big integer 0
db_flashback_retention_target        integer     1440
db_keep_cache_size                   big integer 0
db_lost_write_protect                string      NONE

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
db_name                              string      ora10
db_recovery_file_dest                string      /home/oracle/app/oracle/flash_
                                                 recovery_area
db_recovery_file_dest_size           big integer 10G
db_recycle_cache_size                big integer 0
db_securefile                        string      PERMITTED
db_ultra_safe                        string      OFF
db_unique_name                       string      ora10
db_writer_processes                  integer     6
dbwr_io_slaves                       integer     0
ddl_lock_timeout                     integer     0

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
deferred_segment_creation            boolean     FALSE
dg_broker_config_file1               string      /home/oracle/app/oracle/produc
                                                 t/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/dr1ora10.dat
dg_broker_config_file2               string      /home/oracle/app/oracle/produc
                                                 t/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/dr2ora10.dat
dg_broker_start                      boolean     FALSE
diagnostic_dest                      string      /home/oracle/app/oracle
disk_asynch_io                       boolean     TRUE
dispatchers                          string      (PROTOCOL=TCP) (SERVICE=ora10X
                                                 DB)
distributed_lock_timeout             integer     60

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
dml_locks                            integer     3588
dst_upgrade_insert_conv              boolean     TRUE
enable_ddl_logging                   boolean     FALSE
event                                string
fal_client                           string
fal_server                           string
fast_start_io_target                 integer     0
fast_start_mttr_target               integer     0
fast_start_parallel_rollback         string      LOW
file_mapping                         boolean     FALSE
fileio_network_adapters              string

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
filesystemio_options                 string      none
fixed_date                           string
gcs_server_processes                 integer     0
global_context_pool_size             string
global_names                         boolean     FALSE
global_txn_processes                 integer     1
hash_area_size                       integer     131072
hi_shared_memory_address             integer     0
hs_autoregister                      boolean     TRUE
ifile                                file
instance_groups                      string

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
instance_name                        string      ora10
instance_number                      integer     0
instance_type                        string      RDBMS
java_jit_enabled                     boolean     TRUE
java_max_sessionspace_size           integer     0
java_pool_size                       big integer 0
java_soft_sessionspace_limit         integer     0
job_queue_processes                  integer     1000
large_pool_size                      big integer 0
ldap_directory_access                string      NONE
ldap_directory_sysauth               string      no

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
license_max_sessions                 integer     0
license_max_users                    integer     0
license_sessions_warning             integer     0
listener_networks                    string
local_listener                       string
lock_name_space                      string
lock_sga                             boolean     FALSE
log_archive_config                   string
log_archive_dest                     string
log_archive_dest_1                   string
log_archive_dest_10                  string

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
log_archive_dest_11                  string
log_archive_dest_12                  string
log_archive_dest_13                  string
log_archive_dest_14                  string
log_archive_dest_15                  string
log_archive_dest_16                  string
log_archive_dest_17                  string
log_archive_dest_18                  string
log_archive_dest_19                  string
log_archive_dest_2                   string
log_archive_dest_20                  string

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
log_archive_dest_21                  string
log_archive_dest_22                  string
log_archive_dest_23                  string
log_archive_dest_24                  string
log_archive_dest_25                  string
log_archive_dest_26                  string
log_archive_dest_27                  string
log_archive_dest_28                  string
log_archive_dest_29                  string
log_archive_dest_3                   string
log_archive_dest_30                  string

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
log_archive_dest_31                  string
log_archive_dest_4                   string
log_archive_dest_5                   string
log_archive_dest_6                   string
log_archive_dest_7                   string
log_archive_dest_8                   string
log_archive_dest_9                   string
log_archive_dest_state_1             string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_10            string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_11            string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_12            string      enable

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
log_archive_dest_state_13            string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_14            string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_15            string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_16            string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_17            string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_18            string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_19            string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_2             string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_20            string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_21            string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_22            string      enable

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
log_archive_dest_state_23            string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_24            string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_25            string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_26            string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_27            string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_28            string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_29            string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_3             string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_30            string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_31            string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_4             string      enable

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
log_archive_dest_state_5             string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_6             string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_7             string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_8             string      enable
log_archive_dest_state_9             string      enable
log_archive_duplex_dest              string
log_archive_format                   string      %t_%s_%r.dbf
log_archive_local_first              boolean     TRUE
log_archive_max_processes            integer     4
log_archive_min_succeed_dest         integer     1
log_archive_start                    boolean     FALSE

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
log_archive_trace                    integer     0
log_buffer                           integer     267325440
log_checkpoint_interval              integer     0
log_checkpoint_timeout               integer     1800
log_checkpoints_to_alert             boolean     FALSE
log_file_name_convert                string
max_dispatchers                      integer
max_dump_file_size                   string      unlimited
max_enabled_roles                    integer     150
max_shared_servers                   integer
memory_max_target                    big integer 0

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
memory_target                        big integer 0
nls_calendar                         string
nls_comp                             string      BINARY
nls_currency                         string
nls_date_format                      string
nls_date_language                    string
nls_dual_currency                    string
nls_iso_currency                     string
nls_language                         string      AMERICAN
nls_length_semantics                 string      BYTE
nls_nchar_conv_excp                  string      FALSE

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
nls_numeric_characters               string
nls_sort                             string
nls_territory                        string      AMERICA
nls_time_format                      string
nls_time_tz_format                   string
nls_timestamp_format                 string
nls_timestamp_tz_format              string
object_cache_max_size_percent        integer     10
object_cache_optimal_size            integer     102400
olap_page_pool_size                  big integer 0
open_cursors                         integer     300

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
open_links                           integer     15
open_links_per_instance              integer     4
optimizer_capture_sql_plan_baselines boolean     FALSE
optimizer_dynamic_sampling           integer     2
optimizer_features_enable            string      11.2.0.1
optimizer_index_caching              integer     0
optimizer_index_cost_adj             integer     100
optimizer_mode                       string      ALL_ROWS
optimizer_secure_view_merging        boolean     TRUE
optimizer_use_invisible_indexes      boolean     FALSE
optimizer_use_pending_statistics     boolean     FALSE

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
optimizer_use_sql_plan_baselines     boolean     TRUE
os_authent_prefix                    string      ops$
os_roles                             boolean     FALSE
parallel_adaptive_multi_user         boolean     TRUE
parallel_automatic_tuning            boolean     FALSE
parallel_degree_limit                string      CPU
parallel_degree_policy               string      MANUAL
parallel_execution_message_size      integer     16384
parallel_force_local                 boolean     FALSE
parallel_instance_group              string
parallel_io_cap_enabled              boolean     FALSE

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
parallel_max_servers                 integer     485
parallel_min_percent                 integer     0
parallel_min_servers                 integer     0
parallel_min_time_threshold          string      AUTO
parallel_server                      boolean     FALSE
parallel_server_instances            integer     1
parallel_servers_target              integer     384
parallel_threads_per_cpu             integer     2
permit_92_wrap_format                boolean     TRUE
pga_aggregate_target                 big integer 62179M
plscope_settings                     string      IDENTIFIERS:NONE

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
plsql_ccflags                        string
plsql_code_type                      string      INTERPRETED
plsql_debug                          boolean     FALSE
plsql_optimize_level                 integer     2
plsql_v2_compatibility               boolean     FALSE
plsql_warnings                       string      DISABLE:ALL
pre_page_sga                         boolean     FALSE
processes                            integer     500
query_rewrite_enabled                string      TRUE
query_rewrite_integrity              string      enforced
rdbms_server_dn                      string

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
read_only_open_delayed               boolean     FALSE
recovery_parallelism                 integer     0
recyclebin                           string      on
redo_transport_user                  string
remote_dependencies_mode             string      TIMESTAMP
remote_listener                      string
remote_login_passwordfile            string      EXCLUSIVE
remote_os_authent                    boolean     TRUE
remote_os_roles                      boolean     FALSE
replication_dependency_tracking      boolean     TRUE
resource_limit                       boolean     FALSE

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
resource_manager_cpu_allocation      integer     48
resource_manager_plan                string
result_cache_max_result              integer     5
result_cache_max_size                big integer 10G
result_cache_mode                    string      MANUAL
result_cache_remote_expiration       integer     0
resumable_timeout                    integer     0
rollback_segments                    string
sec_case_sensitive_logon             boolean     FALSE
sec_max_failed_login_attempts        integer     10
sec_protocol_error_further_action    string      CONTINUE

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
sec_protocol_error_trace_action      string      TRACE
sec_return_server_release_banner     boolean     FALSE
serial_reuse                         string      disable
service_names                        string      ora10
session_cached_cursors               integer     50
session_max_open_files               integer     10
sessions                             integer     816
sga_max_size                         big integer 166G
sga_target                           big integer 166G
shadow_core_dump                     string      partial
shared_memory_address                integer     0

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
shared_pool_reserved_size            big integer 2G
shared_pool_size                     big integer 40G
shared_server_sessions               integer
shared_servers                       integer     1
skip_unusable_indexes                boolean     TRUE
smtp_out_server                      string      
sort_area_retained_size              integer     0
sort_area_size                       integer     65536
spfile                               string      /home/oracle/app/oracle/produc
                                                 t/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/spfileora10.
                                                 ora

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
sql92_security                       boolean     FALSE
sql_trace                            boolean     FALSE
sqltune_category                     string      DEFAULT
standby_archive_dest                 string      ?/dbs/arch
standby_file_management              string      MANUAL
star_transformation_enabled          string      FALSE
statistics_level                     string      TYPICAL
streams_pool_size                    big integer 0
tape_asynch_io                       boolean     TRUE
thread                               integer     0
timed_os_statistics                  integer     0

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
timed_statistics                     boolean     TRUE
trace_enabled                        boolean     TRUE
tracefile_identifier                 string
transactions                         integer     897
transactions_per_rollback_segment    integer     5
undo_management                      string      AUTO
undo_retention                       integer     900
undo_tablespace                      string      UNDOTBS1
use_indirect_data_buffers            boolean     FALSE
user_dump_dest                       string      /home/oracle/app/oracle/diag/r
                                                 dbms/ora10/ora10/trace

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
utl_file_dir                         string
workarea_size_policy                 string      AUTO
xml_db_events                        string      enable

What will be optimum parameters to make use of the resources and improve performance of the database?

  • Are you running on Windows or Linux? If Linux, what does ipcs -a say? There should be a big shared memory segment. – Philᵀᴹ Apr 24 at 8:07
  • it is Redhat Enterprise Linux 7 and I have added the results of ipcs -a in the question. Thanks. – user3625561 Apr 24 at 8:20
  • 178243239936 bytes is the SGA. What is your actual question? – Philᵀᴹ Apr 24 at 8:29
  • Linux has a built-in utility to check resources and the physical memory used is 3.5 GB out of 261.7 GB. We simulated multiple users but the memory usage doesn't shoot up. I want to make sure that my init parameters are correct or not for optimal usage. Thanks. – user3625561 Apr 24 at 8:32
  • 1
    The SGA is a large ~170Gb shared memory segment. The memory is being used. – Philᵀᴹ Apr 24 at 9:16

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