You can repair the corrupted pages using
DBCC CHECKDB ('AdventureWorks2008R2', REPAIR_ALLOW_DATA_LOSS);
But this will likely cause problems (as
Imagine you have a Person table and a Department table
PersonId PersonName DepartmentId
1 John 2
2 Jane 3
lets say the corruption occured on the page that holds the DepartmentId 2 record in the Departments table, that record will be removed from the database and John is now in a department that doesn't exist (referential integrity is broken)
Tn this scenario, before we fixed the corruption,
SELECT * FROM Department would error, whereas after running the fix it would work.
You may get lucky in that the corruption only affects indexes, views or other recreatable objects.
As for corruption spreading, if I found corruption, I would be investigating if there were any issues with the disk subsystem. If so I would expect that it would be happening again and would look into getting that fixed.
The best scenario is to have backups and to run
CHECKDB frequently enough that you have the last good backup