I seem to remember that (on Oracle) there is a difference between uttering select count(*) from any_table and select count(any_non_null_column) from any_table.

What are the differences between these two statements, if any?


4 Answers 4

  • COUNT(*) will include NULLS
  • COUNT(column_or_expression) won't.

This means COUNT(any_non_null_column) will give the same as COUNT(*) of course because there are no NULL values to cause differences.

Generally, COUNT(*) should be better because any index can be used because COUNT(column_or_expression) may not be indexed or SARGable

From ANSI-92 (look for "Scalar expressions 125")


a) If COUNT(*) is specified, then the result is the cardinality of T.

b) Otherwise, let TX be the single-column table that is the result of applying the <value expression> to each row of T and eliminating null values. If one or more null values are eliminated, then a completion condition is raised: warning- null value eliminated in set function.

The same rules apply to SQL Server and Sybase too at least

Note: COUNT(1) is the same as COUNT(*) because 1 is a non-nullable expression.

  • 4
    Just for completeness: Oracle will use an index-scan on an indexed not-null column if count(*) is used.
    – user1822
    Feb 6, 2012 at 8:26
  • I thought the three possible options were COUNT(*), COUNT(<constant>) and COUNT(<column name>) and that all three could be prefixed with ALL or DISTINCT (defaulting to ALL if omitted). I'm just wondering what expression can be used where you say _or_expression?
    – onedaywhen
    Jul 27, 2016 at 10:26
  • 2
    @onedaywhen COUNT(1) as a useless example, it's the same as COUNT(*). COUNT(CASE WHEN a>b THEN 1 END) as an example that count rows where a>b. Oct 28, 2016 at 18:39

In any recent (ie 8.x+) version of Oracle they do the same thing. In other words the only difference is semantic:

select count(*) from any_table

is easily readable and obvious what you are trying to do, and

select count(any_non_null_column) from any_table

is harder to read because

  1. it is longer
  2. it is less recognizable
  3. you have to think about whether any_non_null_column really is enforced as not null

In short, use count(*)


In a recent version there is indeed no difference between count(*) and count(any not null column), with the emphasize on not null :-) Have incidentally covered that topic with a blog post: Is count(col) better than count(*)?


In the book Oracle8i Certified Professional DBA Certification Exam Guide (ISBN 0072130601), page 78 says COUNT(1) will actually run faster that COUNT(*) because certain mechanisms are called into play for checking the data dictionary for the every column's nullability (or at least the first column with non-nullability) when using COUNT(*). COUNT(1) bypasses those mechanisms.

MySQL cheats for 'SELECT COUNT(1) on tblname;' on MyISAM tables by reading the table header for the table count. InnoDB counts every time.

To test whether COUNT(1) will run faster than COUNT(*) in a database agnostic way, just run the following and judge the running time for yourself:

SELECT COUNT(1) FROM tblname WHERE 1 = 1;
SELECT COUNT(*) FROM tblname WHERE 1 = 1;
SELECT COUNT(column-name) FROM tblname WHERE 1 = 1;

This makes the COUNT function operate on the same level playing field regardless of storage engine or RDBMS.

  • 8
    The exam guide is wrong. In Oracle count(*) = count(1) (at least after version 7). See asktom.oracle.com/pls/asktom/… (Already referenced by @JackPDouglas) May 4, 2011 at 15:23
  • 3
    Interesting. COUNT(*) shouldn't check columns at all as per ANSI spec. Was asked on SO for SQL Server some time ago too stackoverflow.com/questions/1221559/count-vs-count1/…
    – gbn
    May 4, 2011 at 15:25
  • @gbn, @Leigh Riffel, @bernd_k Thanks for chiming in and reminding me to read and learn more, especially since I haven't been working with Oracle for a while. May 4, 2011 at 17:40

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