While working on some dynamic sql production code we encountered code that's concatenating a bunch of strings and a subquery and then more string concatenation. The goal of the code is to populate a sql variable to eventually call EXEC(@sql). One thing we noticed was that despite our string concat and our COALESCE checks, only the last record was populating the variable.

The below code is a simplified version to reproduce the results.

IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb..#test') IS NOT NULL
  DROP TABLE #test

    tmp_id INT IDENTITY(1,1),
    error VARCHAR(MAX),
    error2 VARCHAR(MAX),
    object_id INT


INSERT INTO #test(error, error2, object_id)
FROM sys.columns

    SELECT @sql += 
      ' | '+(SELECT xC.name
        FROM sys.columns xC
        WHERE xC.name  = T.error
        AND xC.object_id = T.object_id) + ' | ' 
            + CAST(T.error2 AS VARCHAR(MAX))
FROM #test T
ORDER BY T.tmp_id


The strange thing is there seems to be a combination of factors at play here. If you remove the subquery sys.columns, or the order by, or the error2 column then it works as expected. You can also change the order by to be ordered by error instead of tmp_id and it will also still work.

I'm not looking for a solution as I've already rewritten the production code but I'm very interested in the "why" this is happening. I've tested on sql server 2008, 2016, 2017, and 2019 server.

Anyone have any ideas as to the cause?


1 Answer 1


String concatenation in that form combined with ORDER BY is undefined (and unstable and unreliable). I have seen the same symptom where you only get one result. If you want all the rows, drop the ORDER BY (ordering won't be guaranteed, but maybe that's ok, since your TOP 100 doesn't have an ORDER BY, so that's not guaranteed to be deterministic either). If you need ORDER BY, use XML PATH or STRING_AGG() instead, depending on version.

  SELECT ',' + t.error + CONVERT(varchar(12), xC.[object_id]) + ',' 
    + t.error + ',' + t.error + ',' + t.error + ',' 
    + t.error2 + ',' -- carriage returns are good for the soul!
    + t.error + ',' + t.error + ',' + t.error + ',' 
FROM #test AS t
INNER JOIN sys.columns AS xC 
  ON t.object_id = xC.object_id
ORDER BY t.tmp_id -- this is the key to ordering
FOR XML PATH, TYPE).value(N'.[1]', N'nvarchar(max)'), 1, 1, N'');

On 2017+ you can use:

SELECT @sql = STRING_AGG(t.error + CONVERT(varchar(11), xC.[object_id]) + ',' 
    + t.error + ',' + t.error + ',' + t.error + ',' 
    + t.error2 + ',' 
    + t.error + ',' + t.error + ',' + t.error, ',') 
FROM #test AS t
INNER JOIN sys.columns AS xC 
  ON t.object_id = xC.object_id;

For more info, see Order by 1 shortens the result set to one row and the links therein.

  • This is actually the exact same solution that we came up with for fixing the problem in production. The order by was because we were generating tables dynamically based off metadata and we were using the order by to create indexes and have the columns added in the index in a specific order based on other metadata in our system. Thanks for taking a look at this and for the link! We tried googling several things and failed to find this so I appreciate it! Feb 25, 2020 at 23:33

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