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The validation phase of optimistic concurrency control has two derctions: one is backward validation, checking for conflicts with any previously validated transaction, the other is forward validation, checking for conflicts with transaction that not yet committed.

The validated transactions install modifications into "global" database, which means the main work backward validation needs to do is checking conflicts with "global" database. However, the forward validation needs to check conflicts with each running transaction. It introduces expensive communication between threads if the database supports multithreading, and also extensive memory read when the concurrency level of transaction is pretty high.

As far as I know, forword validation is more widely adopted than backward validation. Why? Which cases are suited for forward validation and backward validation respectively?

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