There are three tools built in to SQL Server that will answer the three questions you've asked:
- Rows returned
- Execution Count
- General performance.
These tools, in no particular order are:
- Dynamic Management Views (DMV)
- Query Store
- Extended Events
Each one will answer all three questions, but, they answer them somewhat differently.
The DMVs show you an aggregation of the behavior of the queries that are currently in cache. From that you can see rows returned, the number of executions for a query, and an aggregation average on execution time & resources used. The key limitations here are that this is an aggregate, and that it's completely dependent on what's currently in cache.
The Query Store shows you an hourly aggregate of the behavior of all the queries. There, again, you can see the rows returned, execution count and an average on time & resources. Because the averages are broken down hourly (by default), you can do before & after comparisons. The limitation here is that you don't get this for free. It has to be enabled & managed on a database by database method. Also, it is an aggregate, but, not a complete aggregate. If you wanted say, a count of all executions over 24 hours, you have to aggregate the aggregates.
Extended Events shows you each individual batch, stored procedure, or query, depending on what you're attempting to capture. This gives you rows returned and precise measures of time & resources. To get aggregations, it's on you. The limitation here, well, there really isn't one. Extended Events can do just about anything. However, you do have to enabled them, configure and maintain them. Then, if you want aggregates, you have to do the work to supply the aggregations (although, the SSMS GUI offers some tools to help with this).
One of these three, or a combination, will give you all the data you want to answer those three questions.