Is there a way to force all database and log backups run on the server to be encrypted?
If encryption is not specified, the query will be terminated.
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There is no option to force
BACKUP DATABASE &
BACKUP LOG to specify
WITH ENCRYPTION... as part of backup commands in SQL Server.
Backup files for databases that have TDE enabled are also encrypted with the database encryption key. As a result, when you restore these backups, the certificate that protects the database encryption key must be available.
Rather than forcing every backup to specify encryption, you're simply shifting the encryption upstream so that data is already encrypted when the backups run.
One important side effect of enabling TDE is that if you are using compressed backups, enabling TDE will make your compressed backups stop compressing. If you are on SQL Server 2016 or newer, you can use TDE with compressed backups, albeit with some bugs to be aware of.