I have a 3NF normalized database design and was trying to understand the concept of strong vs weak entity types and my understanding is weak entity types are tables that don't have a primary key. However, surely all tables should have a primary key thus making them all a strong entity? So all my tables are strong entities? or am I missing something?

Rethinking, my junction tables have composite keys, (in maria db too make a composite you do PRIMARY KEY(column1, column2)) so would these class as weak entities?

Database design: enter image description here

  • 1
    MySQL <> MariaDB.
    – philipxy
    Jan 9, 2022 at 21:04
  • You are expecting a "customer" to have multiple "accounts" and multiple "addresses"? Don't use many-to-many tables when the relationship is not many-to-many.
    – Rick James
    Jan 10, 2022 at 20:58
  • @Rick James what? I’ve made a many to many table because it’s a many to many relation Jan 11, 2022 at 21:03
  • Two customers share the same account? Share the same address?
    – Rick James
    Jan 11, 2022 at 23:17
  • @Rick James yes there is something called a joint account? and people can live in the same address that usually how a house works... Jan 12, 2022 at 11:17

1 Answer 1


I've seen it mentioned in blogs and tutorials that a weak entity "doesn't have a primary key," but this is misleading.

You are correct that every table needs a primary key. This is necessary for the table to qualify as a relation. Every relation has one or more candidate keys, and one of the candidate keys is chosen as the table's primary key. The meaning of a candidate key is that the columns are non-NULL and they can be used to uniquely identify any row in the table.

The term weak entity is used for a table where the rows cannot exist without referencing some "parent" entity. For example, you might have tables Users and Phones such that a user can have zero, one, or multiple phones. But a phone number cannot exist without referencing its owning user.

Therefore Users is a strong entity; one row in the Users table can exist without regard to how many phones it has, or even if no phones reference it.

Phones is a weak entity. A given phone number cannot exist unless it references a row in Users.

A good way to implement this in SQL is to require that the primary key of the Phones table include a reference to the primary key of a row in User. But a user may own multiple phones, so there needs to be an additional column in Phones to make it a compound primary key. This is often called the discriminator and it's just an arbitrary value that serves to be distinct for each of the phones belonging to a given user. It doesn't necessarily have any other meaning, but sometimes people use it as an ordinal number for displaying the phones.


  owner_id INT NOT NULL,
  phone_ordinal INT NOT NULL,
  phone_number VARCHAR(32) NOT NULL,
  phone_type VARCHAR(16) NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (owner_id, phone_ordinal),
  FOREIGN KEY (owner_id) REFERENCES Users(user_id)

Some people state this as "Phones doesn't have a primary key" but they mean it doesn't have its own auto-incrementing integer column. It depends on values in the primary key of the Users table.

Many software developers confuse "primary key" with "an auto-incrementing integer column named id." This is a misunderstanding of what a primary key is. A primary key is a constraint applied to one or more columns, which together are a candidate key for the table. It does not necessarily mean the primary key is a single column, or that it is an integer, or that it is auto-incrementing.

P.S. I want to be clear that using auto-increment for a primary key is not the criterion for a strong entity. Auto-increment is not required by the relational model at all, it's just a convenience that is popular.

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