My app collects data from a centralized source where many different users can submit data about their organisation and their staff. Previously we used to just hard delete a users data when they were no longer relevant from the source of truth because it used to be reliable.

But a change to some software the clients use, messes with everything. They now DELETE all their data multiple times per month when they submit data. This is by mistake and due to a terrible design. Which means they lose the data for the users in our system and have to re-enter parts of it.

The software they use are stubborn and won't change the behaviour. We have tried educating the users about how to use it, but they don't learn. So now the last option is to soft delete the data for a certain time period.

Having looked at multiple Stack Overflow posts and blogs around the web, I don't really fancy any of the options, IE. add a column to the tables that need to be soft deleted. I started looking because that was my first instinct as well but don't really like it and the implications.

I was wondering if you could give me some feedback on a different idea. I have no experience with maintaining soft deletion and I don't know if my thought is terrible.

Diagram and relations Simple diagram to show some of the relations

There is a user, their unique identifier is the same across multiple orgs. Per user affiliation with an org they have some userinformation like name, title etc. In our system they have one status row because it is the same in our app no matter what org they choose to connect as.

So if I follow the conventional way, of adding columns for soft deleting I would have to add one to each of the unique tables that contains user data, because their affiliation to a certain org might be deleted but as a user they still live on in our system from somewhere else.

But it seems like a hassle and a lot of change in the nitty gritty of my code to change things around to account for all these extra columns.


In my mind it would be simpler if I added a separate table containing the following:

  • UniqueUserIdentifier
  • UniqueOrgIdentifier
  • SoftDeleteDate

And then whenever my app ask for data the api checks the new table; "is this person soft deleted from this org?" If true, they just block the request until they are restored if needed, or they will remain deleted until they are hard deleted within x hours of the soft deletion happening.

Instead of having to change many queries and logic all over the place.

Additional information

The API uses EFCore as an ORM to connect to the database, in case that would help with any other smart fixes regarding its feature set. I have thought about creating custom savechanges logic, but couldn't come up with a good idea other than again adding a column to all the tables.

Please let me know if you need any more information.


J.D. Told me about row-level security which made me look around. It seems very useful, and it gave me some more insight into what I could search for.

So I came across global query filters for EFCore which seems promising. It allows the context to filter on all queries and when you actually need to ignore this global filter, you can simply do it on a query by query basis.

And it allows for dependency injection if you need to use something for the global filter that is based on the user that is connected. I created an answer based on this new information

It also turns out that what I really wanted was to deactivate the row until eventual activation or hard delete instead of soft delete. I didn't know the correct way to express myself.

  • It's not a bad idea but I don't see how that's much better than "having to change many queries and logic all over the place" since you'll still need to change all API methods that pull data for that user. Depending on how you already structured your database that may be less work but theoretically should've been the same amount of work in an apples to apples comparison. But bigger question is how do you then handle soft deletes of other subsets of data that isn't just a whole organization for a user?...e.g. what if the user deletes a single row from some other table via the application?
    – J.D.
    Commented Feb 3, 2022 at 14:02
  • 2
    "to change things around to account for all these extra columns." - IMO: Your code is flawed as it is. Code should never have select * statements nor should it have insert into tab value code (insert without defining columns). ie: you should always specify the actual columns in use. Commented Feb 3, 2022 at 14:50
  • Thank you for your responses. @MichaelKutz we use Entity Framework core, so we don't have select * statements. What I meant with the statement is that I might have to change everything to account for "is this entry soft deleted".
    – Mikkel
    Commented Feb 3, 2022 at 15:27
  • As @AaronBertrand said a view might be a way to go, and just do the many new columns instead as J.D. say. Need to learn more about efcore + views I just thought it easier to slap a method on every api endpoint "Is soft deleted?" Than having to deal with views or multiple changes to the backend based on if this is soft deleted or not. If that makes sense?
    – Mikkel
    Commented Feb 3, 2022 at 15:28
  • 1
    @J.D. I have skimmed some from the link you sent. So in essence I would be able to create a filter for my APIs database-user that would filter the content of the tables based on whether or not the "soft delete" column is set. Even when joining with other tables that may or may not have "soft delete" as well? Sounds really interesting.
    – Mikkel
    Commented Feb 4, 2022 at 12:56

1 Answer 1


J.D. Mentioned Row Level Security in a comment and it seems very promising for people who need to do what I want but only have SQL to work with. If they post an answer I will give them credit for this question.

Though it is possible to create migrations in EFCore that allows for custom SQL to be executed when the database is deployed, it felt forced. But still probably a valid solution

MS docs Custom migration features

MS docs Raw migration SQL

J.D.'s link to ROW Level security

Based on the new terms in my vocabulary, I found global query filter from EFCore and I went with that.

Microsoft own docs

Though you do need to be a bit careful with how you set it up.

Using required navigation to access entity which has global query filter defined may lead to unexpected results.

But in essence it boils down to adding something like this to the code first configuration.

modelBuilder.Entity<Blog>().HasMany(b => b.Posts).WithOne(p => p.Blog).IsRequired();
modelBuilder.Entity<Blog>().HasQueryFilter(b => b.Url.Contains("fish"));
modelBuilder.Entity<Post>().HasQueryFilter(p => p.Blog.Url.Contains("fish"));

Blog that talks about a real world example, where they discuss injecting user JWT token info into the context to allow personal filtering for an individual.

public class Context : DbContext
    private readonly IClaimsProvider _claimsProvider;

    private int UserId => _claimsProvider.UserId;
    private IEnumerable<int> AccessibleClientIds => _claimsProvider.AccessibleClientIds;

    public Context(DbContextOptions<Context> options, IClaimsProvider claimsProvider) : base(options)
        _claimsProvider = claimsProvider;

modelBuilder.Entity<Client>(entity =>
        entity.HasQueryFilter(x => AccessibleClientIds.Contains(x.Id));

        entity.HasKey(x => x.Id);
        entity.HasMany(x => x.UserClientAccess)
              .WithOne(x => x.Client)
              .HasForeignKey(x => x.ClientId);

        modelBuilder.Entity<UserOptions>(entity =>
         entity.HasQueryFilter(x => x.UserId == UserId);

         entity.HasKey(x => x.Id);

This blog talks about overriding the default savechanges functionality to always soft delete, but this is not what I want, but some might find it helpful.

    public override int SaveChanges()
        return base.SaveChanges();

    public override Task SaveChangesAsync(bool acceptAllChangesOnSuccess, CancellationToken cancellationToken = default(CancellationToken))
            return base.SaveChangesAsync(acceptAllChangesOnSuccess, cancellationToken);

    private void UpdateSoftDeleteStatuses()
        foreach (var entry in ChangeTracker.Entries())
            switch (entry.State)
                case EntityState.Added:
                    entry.CurrentValues["isDeleted"] = false;
                case EntityState.Deleted:
                    entry.State = EntityState.Modified;
                    entry.CurrentValues["isDeleted"] = true;

Eventual implementation

I have all the relevant models inherit from Deactivateable to add the property/col to the database. Then because of the simplicity of the filter I simply created this config in the context:

foreach (var entity in modelBuilder.Model.GetEntityTypes())
            if (entity.ClrType.IsSubclassOf(typeof(Deactivatable)))
                var dateTimeOffsetDefaultValue = new DateTimeOffset(new DateTime(1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, DateTimeKind.Unspecified), new TimeSpan(0, 0, 0, 0, 0));
                modelBuilder.Entity(entity.ClrType, o =>

                var deactivatedDate = entity.FindProperty(nameof(Deactivatable.DeactivatedDate)).PropertyInfo;

                var parameterExpression = Expression.Parameter(entity.ClrType);
                var propertyExpression = Expression.Property(parameterExpression, deactivatedDate);
                var constExpression = Expression.Constant(dateTimeOffsetDefaultValue);

                var equalExpression = Expression.Equal(propertyExpression, constExpression);
                var filter = Expression.Lambda(equalExpression, parameterExpression);
                modelBuilder.Entity(entity.ClrType).HasQueryFilter(filter );


Based on the inspiration from this github issue comment made by stevendarby. I couldn't figure out where they got .Model.FindLeastDerivedEntityTypes from, so I simply chose to iterate the models myself and look at the subclass, based on an idea I saw in a related SO post, which I can no longer find and reference.

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