Here is my attempt at explaining what each command does.
A manual way to instruct Cassandra to consolidate/rewrite SSTables while also evicting expired (tombstoned) data. Tombstones are considered expired when they are past the GC grace configured on a table.
Note that running this command is NOT recommended. I've explained why in this post -- Why is forcing major compaction on a table not ideal?.
Removes partitions (records) whose keys are no longer owned by a node because the token range(s) it owns has changed after another node has been added to the cluster.
For example, let's say node A owns token range 0-100. Node B was added to the cluster with ownership of token range 80-200. As a result of this, node A no longer owns the data in the token range 80-100 (now only owns data in the token range 0-79). You would run
cleanup on this node to get rid of the data in the 80-100 range to reclaim the disk space.
Cassandra has a distributed architecture where nothing is shared, not even the storage layer. Each node in the cluster is a separate instance on its own.
Due to this distributed nature, copies of the data on the nodes (replicas) can get out of sync. Repairs are the mechanism by which Cassandra fixes (repairs) the inconsistencies. The functionality is analogous to the way
rsync works for filesystems.
This command triggers compaction on an SSTable to remove "droppable" deleted (cell/row/partition) data.
This command is very new so there are some scenarios where it does not evict deleted data. The concept of "droppable" is quite complex particularly since parts of a partition (i.e. columns, rows) can be fragmented across multiple SSTables so working out whether deleted data can be dropped is not an easy task.
Now to your issue, you need to be aware that setting
gc_grace_seconds too low is dangerous because if you run into a situation where one of the nodes encounter a hardware failure (for example), you need to be able to replace that node within GC grace. Otherwise, you cannot put that node back into the cluster because the tombstones would have expired. If you try to put a failed node back, the other nodes no longer have the tombstones (they've been GCd) so the deleted data on the failed node will get resurrected back to your cluster.
In the first instance, you can try to run
nodetool garbagecollect on the problematic table to try to reclaim the space. If that does not work (for the reasons I described above), then you can try
nodetool compact BUT be aware of the consequences I've explained in my post above. Cheers!