impdp and expdp report encoding warnings in the form of:

export done in A character set and B character set
import done in C set and C character set

Why do both warnings name two character sets? What to they refer to? It seems to be always two, so it's not just a list.

1 Answer 1


Databases have 2 character sets: 1 default character set (used by CHAR, VARCHAR2, CLOB) and 1 national character set (used by NCHAR, NVARCHAR2, NCLOB).

For example: AL32UTF8 + AL16UTF16

You can query them from NLS_DATABASE_PARAMETERS.

  • So they refer to default and national each? Thanks!
    – Basti
    Dec 19, 2022 at 13:02

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