From the mysql client program, there is no standard way to see progress. MariaDB does have a way (see my 10 year old post Is there a progress indicator for OPTIMIZE TABLE progress?)
If you want to track it, you can do so outside of the mysql client program.
First, login to mysql and run
Let's say it give you
In the OS as root, do the following
ls -l tablename.ibd
This will show the physical filesize of the InnoDB table.
Now run this in that same database folder
ls -lt | grep "sql\-"
ls -lt *sql-*
You should see a temp table of some kind start with a
When their respective filesizes come close, it should be done soon.
If the temp file is a small and not changing, your table might be locked waiting for read or writes to finish.