Something to note up front, I am using Magento 2 so if the query looks a little strange, that's why.

I have the following query and am trying to optimize the indexes for the table;

SELECT `main_table`.`id`, 
FROM `yotpo_order_status_history` AS `main_table` 
WHERE (`order_id` = 12709301) 
AND (`store_id` = 1) 
ORDER BY created_at DESC, id DESC LIMIT 1;

I'm not sure whether my alter query should include created_at and id only once, as such;

alter table yotpo_order_status_history add index (order_id, store_id, created_at, id);

Or if I should include them twice like so;

alter table yotpo_order_status_history add index (order_id, store_id, created_at, id, created_at, id);

I've looked for an answer to this question, but didn't find anything that even mentions this specific scenario. Should I go with the first option without defining the columns twice or do I need to use the second option? I'm familiar with redundant indexes and their performance implications but that's not quite what I've come across here.

  • 1
    The first. EXPLAIN output should confirm Commented May 5, 2023 at 18:23
  • I thought so, but I wasn't sure. Thanks.
    – Marisa
    Commented May 5, 2023 at 18:28

2 Answers 2


The first is the winner of the two. But it's not the best. The best one should be

alter table yotpo_order_status_history add index (order_id, store_id, created_at desc, id desc);

By default, the value is ordered asc, so for the first one, the database engine can't determine the right rowid without scanning all the id values.

  • note, full recognition and implementation of desc indexes comes with 10.8+. Note the primary key (assumed to be id) is already at the end of every secondary index (always ascending). So perhaps a created_at (on default asc) is all that's needed at the end. With both of them ascending, a reverse search of an index is possible.
    – danblack
    Commented May 8, 2023 at 8:36
  • 1
    agreed, if id is the primary key, then an index on (order_id, store_id, created_at) will be the best option. Commented May 8, 2023 at 9:49
  • look at explain key_len to determine how much of an index is used.
    – danblack
    Commented May 9, 2023 at 0:31

Only once.

  1. The = tests: order_id, store_id, in any order
  2. The ORDER BY created_at, id, in the given order

(If you add non-= tests or GROUP BY or mix ASC and DESC, etc. the above rules are inadequate!)

(I cannot explain the duplication of main_table.id)

This tells you how to construct that index: Index Cookbook

(I don't remember ever hearing of repeating columns in the index. Based on how an indexes works, it should never be necessary.)

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