1

I have searched the docs of PostgreSQL and Google, but I haven't found the function pg_get_tabledef, while pg_get_indexdef exists.

There's no pg_get_tabledef? Maybe it's too difficult to be implemented? but pgAdmin4 can give very pretty/clear/clean DDL scripts for every objects in a database. How does it do?

In fact I need to compare definitions of many tables of two databases(How to rapidly compare definitions of many tables of two PostgreSQL databases?).

Although there are pg_dump --section=pre-data and pg_dump --section=post-data can dump all the definitions, but comparing the results still would be a huge work. I need to find out exactly which tables structure have been changed.

So I'm expecting pg_get_tabledef, like pg_get_indexdef, but for tables. It's strange there's no such function, while pg_get_indexdef exists.

Would you pls give me some hint? thks!

3 Answers 3

2

There is a pretty good one out there now, written by me:

https://github.com/MichaelDBA/pg_get_tabledef

CREATE TYPE public.tabledefs AS ENUM ('PKEY_EXTERNAL','FKEYS_INTERNAL', 'FKEYS_EXTERNAL', 'FKEYS_COMMENTED', 'FKEYS_NONE', 'INCLUDE_TRIGGERS', 'NO_TRIGGERS');

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION public.pg_get_coldef(
  in_schema text,
  in_table text,
  in_column text,
  oldway boolean default False
)
RETURNS text
LANGUAGE plpgsql VOLATILE
AS
$$
DECLARE
coldef text;
BEGIN
  IF oldway THEN 
    SELECT pg_catalog.format_type(a.atttypid, a.atttypmod) INTO coldef FROM pg_namespace n, pg_class c, pg_attribute a, pg_type t 
    WHERE n.nspname = in_schema AND n.oid = c.relnamespace AND c.relname = in_table AND a.attname = in_column and a.attnum > 0 AND a.attrelid = c.oid AND a.atttypid = t.oid ORDER BY a.attnum;
  ELSE
    -- a.attrelid::regclass::text, a.attname
    SELECT CASE WHEN a.atttypid = ANY ('{int,int8,int2}'::regtype[]) AND EXISTS (SELECT FROM pg_attrdef ad WHERE ad.adrelid = a.attrelid AND ad.adnum   = a.attnum AND 
      pg_get_expr(ad.adbin, ad.adrelid) = 'nextval(''' || (pg_get_serial_sequence (a.attrelid::regclass::text, a.attname))::regclass || '''::regclass)') THEN CASE a.atttypid 
      WHEN 'int'::regtype  THEN 'serial' WHEN 'int8'::regtype THEN 'bigserial' WHEN 'int2'::regtype THEN 'smallserial' END ELSE format_type(a.atttypid, a.atttypmod) END AS data_type  
      INTO coldef FROM pg_namespace n, pg_class c, pg_attribute a, pg_type t 
      WHERE n.nspname = in_schema AND n.oid = c.relnamespace AND c.relname = in_table AND a.attname = in_column and a.attnum > 0 AND a.attrelid = c.oid AND a.atttypid = t.oid ORDER BY a.attnum;
  END IF;
  RETURN coldef;
END;
$$;

-- SELECT * FROM public.pg_get_tabledef('sample', 'address', false);
DROP FUNCTION IF EXISTS public.pg_get_tabledef(character varying,character varying,boolean,tabledefs[]);
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION public.pg_get_tabledef(
  in_schema varchar,
  in_table varchar,
  _verbose boolean,
  VARIADIC arr public.tabledefs[] DEFAULT '{}':: public.tabledefs[]
)
RETURNS text
LANGUAGE plpgsql VOLATILE
AS
$$
 /* ********************************************************************************
COPYRIGHT NOTICE FOLLOWS.  DO NOT REMOVE
Copyright (c) 2021-2023 SQLEXEC LLC

Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation 
for any purpose, without fee, and without a written agreement is hereby granted, 
provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph and the following two paragraphs appear in all copies.

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THE SOFTWARE PROVIDED HEREUNDER IS ON AN "AS IS" BASIS, AND SQLEXEC LLC HAS 
NO OBLIGATIONS TO PROVIDE MAINTENANCE, SUPPORT, UPDATES, ENHANCEMENTS, OR MODIFICATIONS.

************************************************************************************ */

-- History:
-- Date      Description
-- ==========   ======================================================================  
-- 2021-03-20   Original coding using some snippets from 
--              https://stackoverflow.com/questions/2593803/how-to-generate-the-create-table-sql-statement-for-an-existing-table-in-postgr
-- 2021-03-21   Added partitioned table support, i.e., PARTITION BY clause.
-- 2021-03-21   Added WITH clause logic where storage parameters for tables are set.
-- 2021-03-22   Added tablespace logic for tables and indexes.
-- 2021-03-24   Added inheritance-based partitioning support for PG 9.6 and lower.
-- 2022-09-12   Fixed Issue#1: Added fix for PostGIS columns where we do not presume the schema, leave without schema to imply public schema
-- 2022-09-19   Fixed Issue#2: Do not add CREATE INDEX statements if the indexes are defined within the Table definition as ADD CONSTRAINT.
-- 2022-12-03   Fixed: Handle NULL condition for ENUMs
-- 2022-12-07   Fixed: not setting tablespace correctly for user defined tablespaces
-- 2023-04-12   Fixed Issue#6: Handle array types: int, bigint, varchar, even varchars with precisions.
-- 2023-04-13   Fixed Issue#7: Incomplete fixing of issue#6
-- 2023-04-21   Fixed Issue#8: previously returns actual sequence info (aka \d) instead of serial/bigserial def.
-- 2023-04-21   Fixed Issue#10: Consolidated comments into one place under function prototype heading.
-- 2023-05-17   Fixed Issue#13: do not specify FKEY for partitions. It is done on the parent and implied on the partitions, else you get "fkey already exists" error
-- 2023-05-20   Fixed syntax error, missing THEN keyword
-- 2023-05-20   Fixed Issue#11: Handle parent of table being in another schema
-- 2023-07-24   Fixed Issue#14: If multiple triggers are defined on a table, show them all not just the first one.
-- 2023-08-03   Fixed Issue#15: use utd_schema with USER-DEFINED data types, not defaulting to table schema.
-- 2023-08-03   Fixed Issue#16: Make it optional to define the PKEY as external instead of internal.

  DECLARE
    v_qualified text;
    v_table_ddl text;
    v_table_oid int;
    v_colrec record;
    v_constraintrec record;
    v_trigrec       record;
    v_indexrec record;
    v_primary boolean := False;
    v_constraint_name text;
    v_constraint_def  text;
    v_pkey_def        text := '';
    v_fkey_defs text;
    v_trigger text := '';
    v_partition_key text := '';
    v_partbound text;
    v_parent text;
    v_parent_schema text;
    v_persist text;
    v_temp  text := ''; 
    v_relopts text;
    v_tablespace text;
    v_pgversion int;
    bSerial boolean;
    bPartition boolean;
    bInheritance boolean;
    bRelispartition boolean;
    constraintarr text[] := '{}';
    constraintelement text;
    bSkip boolean;
      bVerbose boolean := False;

    -- assume defaults for ENUMs at the getgo   
    pkcnt            int := 0;
    fkcnt            int := 0;
      trigcnt          int := 0;
    fktype           tabledefs := 'FKEYS_INTERNAL';
    trigtype         tabledefs := 'NO_TRIGGERS';
    arglen           integer;
    vargs            text;
      avarg            tabledefs;

    -- exception variables
    v_ret            text;
    v_diag1          text;
    v_diag2          text;
    v_diag3          text;
    v_diag4          text;
    v_diag5          text;
    v_diag6          text;
    
  BEGIN
    v_qualified = in_schema || '.' || in_table;
  
    IF _verbose THEN bVerbose = True; END IF;
    
    arglen := array_length($4, 1);
    IF arglen IS NULL THEN
        -- nothing to do, so assume defaults
        NULL;
    ELSE
        -- loop thru args
        -- IF 'NO_TRIGGERS' = ANY ($4)
        -- select array_to_string($4, ',', '***') INTO vargs;
        IF bVerbose THEN RAISE NOTICE 'arguments=%', $4; END IF;
        FOREACH avarg IN ARRAY $4 LOOP
            IF bVerbose THEN RAISE INFO 'arg=%', avarg; END IF;
            IF avarg = 'FKEYS_INTERNAL' OR avarg = 'FKEYS_EXTERNAL' OR avarg = 'FKEYS_COMMENTED' THEN
                fkcnt = fkcnt + 1;
                fktype = avarg;
            ELSEIF avarg = 'INCLUDE_TRIGGERS' OR avarg = 'NO_TRIGGERS' THEN
                trigcnt = trigcnt + 1;
                trigtype = avarg;
            ELSEIF avarg = 'PKEY_EXTERNAL' THEN
                pkcnt = pkcnt + 1;
            END IF;
        END LOOP;
        IF fkcnt > 1 THEN 
            RAISE WARNING 'Only one foreign key option can be provided. You provided %', fkcnt;
              RETURN '';
        ELSEIF trigcnt > 1 THEN 
            RAISE WARNING 'Only one trigger option can be provided. You provided %', trigcnt;
            RETURN '';
        ELSEIF pkcnt > 1 THEN 
            RAISE WARNING 'Only one pkey option can be provided. You provided %', pkcnt;
            RETURN '';          
        END IF;                
    END IF;
    
    SELECT c.oid, (select setting from pg_settings where name = 'server_version_num') INTO v_table_oid, v_pgversion FROM pg_catalog.pg_class c LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace n ON n.oid = c.relnamespace
    WHERE c.relkind in ('r','p') AND c.relname = in_table AND n.nspname = in_schema;
        
    -- throw an error if table was not found
    IF (v_table_oid IS NULL) THEN
      RAISE EXCEPTION 'table does not exist';
    END IF;

    -- get user-defined tablespaces if applicable
    SELECT tablespace INTO v_temp FROM pg_tables WHERE schemaname = in_schema and tablename = in_table and tablespace IS NOT NULL;
    IF v_temp IS NULL THEN
      v_tablespace := 'TABLESPACE pg_default';
    ELSE
      v_tablespace := 'TABLESPACE ' || v_temp;
    END IF;
    
    -- also see if there are any SET commands for this table, ie, autovacuum_enabled=off, fillfactor=70
    WITH relopts AS (SELECT unnest(c.reloptions) relopts FROM pg_class c, pg_namespace n WHERE n.nspname = in_schema and n.oid = c.relnamespace and c.relname = in_table) 
    SELECT string_agg(r.relopts, ', ') as relopts INTO v_temp from relopts r;
    IF v_temp IS NULL THEN
      v_relopts := '';
    ELSE
      v_relopts := ' WITH (' || v_temp || ')';
    END IF;
    
    -- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Create table defs for partitions/children using inheritance or declarative methods.
    -- inheritance: pg_class.relkind = 'r'   pg_class.relispartition=false   pg_class.relpartbound is NULL
    -- declarative: pg_class.relkind = 'r'   pg_class.relispartition=true    pg_class.relpartbound is NOT NULL
    -- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    v_partbound := '';
    bPartition := False;
    bInheritance := False;
    IF v_pgversion < 100000 THEN
      -- Issue#11: handle parent schema
      SELECT c2.relname parent, c2.relnamespace::regnamespace INTO v_parent, v_parent_schema from pg_class c1, pg_namespace n, pg_inherits i, pg_class c2
      WHERE n.nspname = in_schema and n.oid = c1.relnamespace and c1.relname = in_table and c1.oid = i.inhrelid and i.inhparent = c2.oid and c1.relkind = 'r';      
      IF (v_parent IS NOT NULL) THEN
        bPartition   := True;
        bInheritance := True;
      END IF;
    ELSE
      -- Issue#11: handle parent schema
      SELECT c2.relname parent, c1.relispartition, pg_get_expr(c1.relpartbound, c1.oid, true), c2.relnamespace::regnamespace INTO v_parent, bRelispartition, v_partbound, v_parent_schema from pg_class c1, pg_namespace n, pg_inherits i, pg_class c2
      WHERE n.nspname = in_schema and n.oid = c1.relnamespace and c1.relname = in_table and c1.oid = i.inhrelid and i.inhparent = c2.oid and c1.relkind = 'r';
      IF (v_parent IS NOT NULL) THEN
        bPartition   := True;
        IF bRelispartition THEN
          bInheritance := False;
        ELSE
          bInheritance := True;
        END IF;
      END IF;
    END IF;
    IF bPartition THEN
      IF bInheritance THEN
        -- inheritance-based
        v_table_ddl := 'CREATE TABLE ' || in_schema || '.' || in_table || '( '|| E'\n';
        -- Jump to constraints section to add the check constraints
      ELSE
        -- declarative-based
        IF v_relopts <> '' THEN
          v_table_ddl := 'CREATE TABLE ' || in_schema || '.' || in_table || ' PARTITION OF ' || in_schema || '.' || v_parent || ' ' || v_partbound || v_relopts || ' ' || v_tablespace || '; ' || E'\n';
        ELSE
          v_table_ddl := 'CREATE TABLE ' || in_schema || '.' || in_table || ' PARTITION OF ' || in_schema || '.' || v_parent || ' ' || v_partbound || ' ' || v_tablespace || '; ' || E'\n';
        END IF;
        -- Jump to constraints and index section to add the check constraints and indexes and perhaps FKeys
      END IF;
    END IF;
    IF bVerbose THEN RAISE INFO '(1)tabledef so far: %', v_table_ddl; END IF;

    IF NOT bPartition THEN
      -- see if this is unlogged or temporary table
      select c.relpersistence into v_persist from pg_class c, pg_namespace n where n.nspname = in_schema and n.oid = c.relnamespace and c.relname = in_table and c.relkind = 'r';
      IF v_persist = 'u' THEN
        v_temp := 'UNLOGGED';
      ELSIF v_persist = 't' THEN
        v_temp := 'TEMPORARY';
      ELSE
        v_temp := '';
      END IF;
    END IF;
    
    -- start the create definition for regular tables unless we are in progress creating an inheritance-based child table
    IF NOT bPartition THEN
      v_table_ddl := 'CREATE ' || v_temp || ' TABLE ' || in_schema || '.' || in_table || ' (' || E'\n';
    END IF;
    -- RAISE INFO 'DEBUG2: tabledef so far: %', v_table_ddl;    
    -- define all of the columns in the table unless we are in progress creating an inheritance-based child table
    IF NOT bPartition THEN
      FOR v_colrec IN
        SELECT c.column_name, c.data_type, c.udt_name, c.udt_schema, c.character_maximum_length, c.is_nullable, c.column_default, c.numeric_precision, c.numeric_scale, c.is_identity, c.identity_generation        
        FROM information_schema.columns c WHERE (table_schema, table_name) = (in_schema, in_table) ORDER BY ordinal_position
      LOOP
         IF bVerbose THEN RAISE INFO '(col loop) name=% type=% udt_name=% udt_schema=%', v_colrec.column_name, v_colrec.data_type, v_colrec.udt_name, v_colrec.udt_schema; END IF;  
         SELECT CASE WHEN pg_get_serial_sequence(v_qualified, v_colrec.column_name) IS NOT NULL THEN True ELSE False END into bSerial;
         IF bVerbose THEN
           SELECT pg_get_serial_sequence(v_qualified, v_colrec.column_name) into v_temp;
           IF v_temp IS NULL THEN v_temp = 'NA'; END IF;
           SELECT public.pg_get_coldef(in_schema, in_table,v_colrec.column_name) INTO v_diag1;
           --RAISE NOTICE 'DEBUG table: %  Column: %  datatype: %  Serial=%  serialval=%  coldef=%', v_qualified, v_colrec.column_name, v_colrec.data_type, bSerial, v_temp, v_diag1;
           --RAISE NOTICE 'DEBUG tabledef: %', v_table_ddl;
         END IF;
         
         v_table_ddl := v_table_ddl || '  ' -- note: two char spacer to start, to indent the column
          || v_colrec.column_name || ' ' || 
         CASE WHEN v_colrec.udt_name in ('geometry', 'box2d', 'box2df', 'box3d', 'geography', 'geometry_dump', 'gidx', 'spheroid', 'valid_detail')
               THEN v_colrec.udt_name 
             WHEN v_colrec.data_type = 'USER-DEFINED' 
               THEN v_colrec.udt_schema || '.' || v_colrec.udt_name 
             WHEN v_colrec.data_type = 'ARRAY' 
             -- Issue#6 fix: handle arrays
               THEN public.pg_get_coldef(in_schema, in_table,v_colrec.column_name) 
             WHEN pg_get_serial_sequence(v_qualified, v_colrec.column_name) IS NOT NULL 
               -- Issue#8 fix: handle serial. Note: NOT NULL is implied so no need to declare it explicitly
               THEN public.pg_get_coldef(in_schema, in_table,v_colrec.column_name)  
             ELSE v_colrec.data_type END 
         || CASE WHEN v_colrec.is_identity = 'YES' THEN CASE WHEN v_colrec.identity_generation = 'ALWAYS' THEN ' GENERATED ALWAYS AS IDENTITY' ELSE ' GENERATED BY DEFAULT AS IDENTITY' END ELSE '' END
         || CASE WHEN v_colrec.character_maximum_length IS NOT NULL THEN ('(' || v_colrec.character_maximum_length || ')') 
                 WHEN v_colrec.numeric_precision > 0 AND v_colrec.numeric_scale > 0 THEN '(' || v_colrec.numeric_precision || ',' || v_colrec.numeric_scale || ')' 
                 ELSE '' END || ' '
             || CASE WHEN bSerial THEN '' ELSE CASE WHEN v_colrec.is_nullable = 'NO' THEN 'NOT NULL' ELSE 'NULL' END END 
         || CASE WHEN bSerial THEN '' ELSE CASE WHEN v_colrec.column_default IS NOT null THEN (' DEFAULT ' || v_colrec.column_default) ELSE '' END END 
         || ',' || E'\n';
      END LOOP;
    END IF;
    IF bVerbose THEN RAISE INFO '(2)tabledef so far: %', v_table_ddl; END IF;
    
    -- define all the constraints: conparentid does not exist pre PGv11
    IF v_pgversion < 110000 THEN
      FOR v_constraintrec IN
        SELECT con.conname as constraint_name, con.contype as constraint_type,
          CASE
            WHEN con.contype = 'p' THEN 1 -- primary key constraint
            WHEN con.contype = 'u' THEN 2 -- unique constraint
            WHEN con.contype = 'f' THEN 3 -- foreign key constraint
            WHEN con.contype = 'c' THEN 4
            ELSE 5
          END as type_rank,
          pg_get_constraintdef(con.oid) as constraint_definition
        FROM pg_catalog.pg_constraint con JOIN pg_catalog.pg_class rel ON rel.oid = con.conrelid JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace nsp ON nsp.oid = connamespace
        WHERE nsp.nspname = in_schema AND rel.relname = in_table ORDER BY type_rank
        LOOP
        IF v_constraintrec.type_rank = 1 THEN
            v_primary := True;
            IF pkcnt = 0 THEN
                v_constraint_name := v_constraintrec.constraint_name;
                v_constraint_def  := v_constraintrec.constraint_definition;
            ELSE
              -- Issue#16 handle external PG def
              v_constraint_name := v_constraintrec.constraint_name;
              SELECT 'ALTER TABLE ONLY ' || in_schema || '.' || c.relname || ' ADD CONSTRAINT ' || r.conname || ' ' || pg_catalog.pg_get_constraintdef(r.oid, true) || ';' INTO v_pkey_def 
              FROM pg_catalog.pg_constraint r, pg_class c, pg_namespace n where r.conrelid = c.oid and  r.contype = 'p' and n.oid = r.connamespace and n.nspname = in_schema AND c.relname = in_table;              
            END IF;
            IF bPartition THEN
              continue;
            END IF;
        ELSE
            v_constraint_name := v_constraintrec.constraint_name;
            v_constraint_def  := v_constraintrec.constraint_definition;
        END IF;
        if bVerbose THEN RAISE INFO 'DEBUG4: constraint name=% constraint_def=%', v_constraint_name,v_constraint_def; END IF;
        constraintarr := constraintarr || v_constraintrec.constraint_name:: text;
  
        IF fktype <> 'FKEYS_INTERNAL' AND v_constraintrec.constraint_type = 'f' THEN
            continue;
        END IF;
        
        IF pkcnt = 0 THEN
          v_table_ddl := v_table_ddl || '  ' -- note: two char spacer to start, to indent the column
            || 'CONSTRAINT' || ' '
            || v_constraint_name || ' '
            || v_constraint_def
            || ',' || E'\n';
        END IF;
      END LOOP;
    
    ELSE
      FOR v_constraintrec IN
        SELECT con.conname as constraint_name, con.contype as constraint_type,
          CASE
            WHEN con.contype = 'p' THEN 1 -- primary key constraint
            WHEN con.contype = 'u' THEN 2 -- unique constraint
            WHEN con.contype = 'f' THEN 3 -- foreign key constraint
            WHEN con.contype = 'c' THEN 4
            ELSE 5
          END as type_rank,
          pg_get_constraintdef(con.oid) as constraint_definition
        FROM pg_catalog.pg_constraint con JOIN pg_catalog.pg_class rel ON rel.oid = con.conrelid JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace nsp ON nsp.oid = connamespace
        WHERE nsp.nspname = in_schema AND rel.relname = in_table 
              --Issue#13 added this condition:
              AND con.conparentid = 0 
              ORDER BY type_rank
        LOOP
        IF v_constraintrec.type_rank = 1 THEN
            v_primary := True;
            IF pkcnt = 0 THEN
                v_constraint_name := v_constraintrec.constraint_name;
                v_constraint_def  := v_constraintrec.constraint_definition;
            ELSE
              -- Issue#16 handle external PG def
              v_constraint_name := v_constraintrec.constraint_name;
              SELECT 'ALTER TABLE ONLY ' || in_schema || '.' || c.relname || ' ADD CONSTRAINT ' || r.conname || ' ' || pg_catalog.pg_get_constraintdef(r.oid, true) || ';' INTO v_pkey_def 
              FROM pg_catalog.pg_constraint r, pg_class c, pg_namespace n where r.conrelid = c.oid and  r.contype = 'p' and n.oid = r.connamespace and n.nspname = in_schema AND c.relname = in_table;              
            END IF;
            IF bPartition THEN
              continue;
            END IF;           
        ELSE
            v_constraint_name := v_constraintrec.constraint_name;
            v_constraint_def  := v_constraintrec.constraint_definition;
        END IF;
        -- SELECT 'ALTER TABLE ONLY ' || c.relname || ' ADD CONSTRAINT ' || r.conname || ' ' || pg_catalog.pg_get_constraintdef(r.oid, true) || ';' as pkeyddl FROM pg_catalog.pg_constraint r, pg_class c, pg_namespace n where r.conrelid = c.oid and  r.contype = 'p' and n.oid = r.connamespace and n.nspname = 'sample' AND c.relname = 'extensions_table';
        if bVerbose THEN RAISE INFO 'DEBUG4: constraint name=% constraint_def=%', v_constraint_name,v_constraint_def; END IF;
        constraintarr := constraintarr || v_constraintrec.constraint_name:: text;
  
        IF fktype <> 'FKEYS_INTERNAL' AND v_constraintrec.constraint_type = 'f' THEN
            continue;
        END IF;
  
        IF pkcnt = 0 THEN
          v_table_ddl := v_table_ddl || '  ' -- note: two char spacer to start, to indent the column
            || 'CONSTRAINT' || ' '
            || v_constraint_name || ' '
            || v_constraint_def
            || ',' || E'\n';
        END IF;
      END LOOP;
    END IF;      
    IF bVerbose THEN RAISE INFO '(3)tabledef so far: %', v_table_ddl; END IF;
    
    -- drop the last comma before ending the create statement
    v_table_ddl = substr(v_table_ddl, 0, length(v_table_ddl) - 1) || E'\n';

    -- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- at this point we have everything up to the last table-enclosing parenthesis
    -- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    IF bVerbose THEN RAISE INFO '(4)tabledef so far: %', v_table_ddl; END IF;

    -- See if this is an inheritance-based child table and finish up the table create.
    IF bPartition and bInheritance THEN
      -- Issue#11: handle parent schema
      -- v_table_ddl := v_table_ddl || ') INHERITS (' || in_schema || '.' || v_parent || ') ' || E'\n' || v_relopts || ' ' || v_tablespace || ';' || E'\n';
      IF v_parent_schema = '' OR v_parent_schema IS NULL THEN v_parent_schema = in_schema; END IF;
      v_table_ddl := v_table_ddl || ') INHERITS (' || v_parent_schema || '.' || v_parent || ') ' || E'\n' || v_relopts || ' ' || v_tablespace || ';' || E'\n';
    END IF;

    IF v_pgversion >= 100000 AND NOT bPartition and NOT bInheritance THEN
      -- See if this is a partitioned table (pg_class.relkind = 'p') and add the partitioned key 
      SELECT pg_get_partkeydef(c1.oid) as partition_key INTO v_partition_key FROM pg_class c1 JOIN pg_namespace n ON (n.oid = c1.relnamespace) LEFT JOIN pg_partitioned_table p ON (c1.oid = p.partrelid) 
      WHERE n.nspname = in_schema and n.oid = c1.relnamespace and c1.relname = in_table and c1.relkind = 'p';

      IF v_partition_key IS NOT NULL AND v_partition_key <> '' THEN
        -- add partition clause
        -- NOTE:  cannot specify default tablespace for partitioned relations
        -- v_table_ddl := v_table_ddl || ') PARTITION BY ' || v_partition_key || ' ' || v_tablespace || ';' || E'\n';  
        v_table_ddl := v_table_ddl || ') PARTITION BY ' || v_partition_key || ';' || E'\n';  
      ELSEIF v_relopts <> '' THEN
        v_table_ddl := v_table_ddl || ') ' || v_relopts || ' ' || v_tablespace || ';' || E'\n';  
      ELSE
        -- end the create definition
        v_table_ddl := v_table_ddl || ') ' || v_tablespace || ';' || E'\n';    
      END IF;  
    END IF;

    IF bVerbose THEN RAISE INFO '(5)tabledef so far: %', v_table_ddl; END IF;
    
    -- Add closing paren for regular tables
    -- IF NOT bPartition THEN
    -- v_table_ddl := v_table_ddl || ') ' || v_relopts || ' ' || v_tablespace || E';\n';  
    -- END IF;
    -- RAISE NOTICE 'ddlsofar3: %', v_table_ddl;

    -- Issue#16 create the external PKEY def if indicated
    IF v_pkey_def <> '' THEN
        v_table_ddl := v_table_ddl || v_pkey_def || E'\n';    
    END IF;
   
    IF bVerbose THEN RAISE INFO '(6)tabledef so far: %', v_table_ddl; END IF;
   
    -- create indexes
    FOR v_indexrec IN
      SELECT indexdef, COALESCE(tablespace, 'pg_default') as tablespace, indexname FROM pg_indexes WHERE (schemaname, tablename) = (in_schema, in_table)
    LOOP
      -- RAISE INFO 'DEBUG6: indexname=%', v_indexrec.indexname;             
      -- loop through constraints and skip ones already defined
      bSkip = False;
      FOREACH constraintelement IN ARRAY constraintarr
      LOOP 
         IF constraintelement = v_indexrec.indexname THEN
             -- RAISE INFO 'DEBUG7: skipping index, %', v_indexrec.indexname;
             bSkip = True;
             EXIT;
         END IF;
      END LOOP;   
      if bSkip THEN CONTINUE; END IF;
      
      -- Add IF NOT EXISTS clause so partition index additions will not be created if declarative partition in effect and index already created on parent
      v_indexrec.indexdef := REPLACE(v_indexrec.indexdef, 'CREATE INDEX', 'CREATE INDEX IF NOT EXISTS');
      -- RAISE INFO 'DEBUG8: adding index, %', v_indexrec.indexname;
      
      -- NOTE:  cannot specify default tablespace for partitioned relations
      IF v_partition_key IS NOT NULL AND v_partition_key <> '' THEN
          v_table_ddl := v_table_ddl || v_indexrec.indexdef || ';' || E'\n';
      ELSE
          v_table_ddl := v_table_ddl || v_indexrec.indexdef || ' TABLESPACE ' || v_indexrec.tablespace || ';' || E'\n';
      END IF;
      
    END LOOP;
    IF bVerbose THEN RAISE INFO '(7)tabledef so far: %', v_table_ddl; END IF;
    
    -- Handle external foreign key defs here if applicable. 
    IF fktype = 'FKEYS_EXTERNAL' THEN
      -- Issue#13 fix here too for conparentid = 0. and had to change to a loop to handle multiple return set, not a select into variable syntax.
      -- Also had to account for PG V10 where there is no conparentid
      IF v_pgversion < 110000 THEN
        FOR v_constraintrec IN
        SELECT 'ALTER TABLE ONLY ' || n.nspname || '.' || c2.relname || ' ADD CONSTRAINT ' || r.conname || ' ' || pg_catalog.pg_get_constraintdef(r.oid, true) || ';' as fkeydef
        FROM pg_constraint r, pg_class c1, pg_namespace n, pg_class c2 where r.conrelid = c1.oid and  r.contype = 'f' and n.nspname = in_schema and n.oid = r.connamespace and r.conrelid = c2.oid and c2.relname = in_table 
        LOOP
          v_table_ddl := v_table_ddl || v_constraintrec.fkeydef || ';' || E'\n';
          IF bVerbose THEN RAISE INFO 'keydef = %', v_constraintrec.fkeydef; END IF;
        END LOOP;            
      ELSE
        FOR v_constraintrec IN
        SELECT 'ALTER TABLE ONLY ' || n.nspname || '.' || c2.relname || ' ADD CONSTRAINT ' || r.conname || ' ' || pg_catalog.pg_get_constraintdef(r.oid, true) || ';' as fkeydef
        FROM pg_constraint r, pg_class c1, pg_namespace n, pg_class c2 where r.conrelid = c1.oid and  r.contype = 'f' and n.nspname = in_schema and n.oid = r.connamespace and r.conrelid = c2.oid and c2.relname = in_table and r.conparentid = 0
        LOOP
          v_table_ddl := v_table_ddl || v_constraintrec.fkeydef || E'\n';
          IF bVerbose THEN RAISE INFO 'keydef = %', v_constraintrec.fkeydef; END IF;
        END LOOP;            
      END IF;
      
    ELSIF  fktype = 'FKEYS_COMMENTED' THEN 
      SELECT '-- ALTER TABLE ONLY ' || n.nspname || '.' || c2.relname || ' ADD CONSTRAINT ' || r.conname || ' ' || pg_catalog.pg_get_constraintdef(r.oid, true) || ';' into v_fkey_defs 
      FROM pg_constraint r, pg_class c1, pg_namespace n, pg_class c2 where r.conrelid = c1.oid and  r.contype = 'f' and n.nspname = in_schema and n.oid = r.connamespace and r.conrelid = c2.oid and c2.relname = in_table;
      IF v_fkey_defs IS NOT NULL THEN
          v_table_ddl := v_table_ddl || v_fkey_defs;
      END IF;
    END IF;
    IF bVerbose THEN RAISE INFO '(8)tabledef so far: %', v_table_ddl; END IF;
    
    IF trigtype = 'INCLUDE_TRIGGERS' THEN
        -- Issue#14: handle multiple triggers for a table
      FOR v_trigrec IN
          select pg_get_triggerdef(t.oid, True) || ';' as triggerdef FROM pg_trigger t, pg_class c, pg_namespace n 
          WHERE n.nspname = in_schema and n.oid = c.relnamespace and c.relname = in_table and c.relkind = 'r' and t.tgrelid = c.oid and NOT t.tgisinternal
      LOOP
          v_table_ddl := v_table_ddl || v_trigrec.triggerdef;
          v_table_ddl := v_table_ddl || E'\n';          
          IF bVerbose THEN RAISE INFO 'triggerdef = %', v_trigrec.triggerdef; END IF;
      END LOOP;             
    END IF;
  
    -- add empty line
    v_table_ddl := v_table_ddl || E'\n';

    RETURN v_table_ddl;
    
    EXCEPTION
    WHEN others THEN
    BEGIN
      GET STACKED DIAGNOSTICS v_diag1 = MESSAGE_TEXT, v_diag2 = PG_EXCEPTION_DETAIL, v_diag3 = PG_EXCEPTION_HINT, v_diag4 = RETURNED_SQLSTATE, v_diag5 = PG_CONTEXT, v_diag6 = PG_EXCEPTION_CONTEXT;
      -- v_ret := 'line=' || v_diag6 || '. '|| v_diag4 || '. ' || v_diag1 || ' .' || v_diag2 || ' .' || v_diag3;
      v_ret := 'line=' || v_diag6 || '. '|| v_diag4 || '. ' || v_diag1;
      RAISE EXCEPTION '%', v_ret;
      -- put additional coding here if necessarY
       RETURN '';
    END;

  END;
$$;
2
  • Explicit affiliation disclosure is required in the body of the post (see dba.stackexchange.com/help/promotion). I have added something suitable for you to review. I also added the current code (minimally pruned to meet the 30k character post limit) so your answer provides value even if the link stops working.
    – Paul White
    Aug 4, 2023 at 11:08
  • @MichaelDBA Great Job!!!
    – Leon
    Aug 6, 2023 at 4:37
2

The answer is that is does not exist because nobody implemented it.

People have shown interest in such a feature, see the thread on the pgsql-hackers list.

The first difficulty is to specify what the result should include...

2
  • I agree, it is really difficult to define what the result should be. But I think the definition in pgAdmin4 is well, i.e. the output is DDL of the current object in exporing tree, when we click the top menu SQL.
    – Leon
    Jul 14, 2023 at 18:23
  • That's a valid opinion! If Kirk Wolak ever comes up with a patch, make sure to test and review it. That's the best way to promote it. For now, you can use pg_dump -t tab -s Jul 14, 2023 at 19:10
1

I cannot answer your question regarding the existence/non-existence of a pg_get_tabledef function, however...

Have you looked at using the DDLx extension (https://pgxn.org/dist/ddlx/)?

On Linux, I use the following to compare dev, test, and prod instances of Pg databases (EDIT 2023-07-13 updated script):

#!/usr/bin/sh
########################################################################
#
# do_ddl_compare.sh
#
# Export the DDL for two (or more) databases in such a way that is
# is possible to compare and flag any differences in the structure,
# functions, procedures between the databases
#
# In order to extrack the DDL in a format that is more readily compared
# the ddlx extension needs to be installed in the databases being
# compared.
#
# https://pgxn.org/dist/ddlx/
# https://github.com/lacanoid/pgddl
# https://download.postgresql.org/pub/repos/yum/14/redhat/rhel-8.9-x86_64/ddlx_14-0.22-1.rhel8.noarch.rpm
#
########################################################################

locl_host=localhost
locl_db=db_name
locl_user=${USER}

devl_host=pg_devl.example.com
devl_db=db_name
devl_user="${USER}"

test_host=pg_test.example.com
test_db=db_name
test_user="${USER}"

prod_host=pg_prod.example.com
prod_db=db_name
prod_user="${USER}"

########################################################################

# Convert a (potentially fully-qualified) hostname to a directory name
function hn2dn() {
    local hostName="${1}"
    echo "./"$(echo ${hostName} | cut -d '.' -f 1)
}

# Compare two db dumps and generate a report
function generate_report() {
    local dir1="${1}"
    local dir2="${2}"

    if [ -d ${dir1} ] && [ -d ${dir2} ]; then

        label1=$(echo -n ${dir1} | tr '/', '-')
        label2=$(echo -n ${dir2} | tr '/', '-')

        diff -rq ${dir1} ${dir2} | sort >${label1}_vs_${label2}

        for file in ${label1}_vs_${label2}; do

            #perl -pi -e 's|Files .*/sequence/.*||g'     $file
            perl -pi -e 's|Files |meld |g' $file
            perl -pi -e 's| and | |g' $file
            perl -pi -e 's| differ||g' $file
            perl -pi -e 's|Only in |# Only in |g' $file
            perl -pi -e 's|: |/|g' $file
        done
    fi
}

# Ensure that the ddlx extension is loaded into the database
function ensure_ddlx() {
    local hostName="${1}"
    local dbName="${2}"
    local usr="${3}"

    cmdFile=$(mktemp -p . tmp.XXXXXXXXXX.out)

    cat <<EOT >$cmdFile
CREATE SCHEMA IF NOT EXISTS ddlx ;
COMMENT ON SCHEMA ddlx IS 'Schema for ddlx objects' ;
CREATE EXTENSION IF NOT EXISTS ddlx SCHEMA ddlx ;
EOT

    psql -t -A -U $usr -h ${hostName} -f ${cmdFile} ${dbName}

    rm ${cmdFile}
}

# Initialize the directory structure to write the DB DDL to
function init_db_dump() {
    local hostName="${1}"
    local dbName="${2}"
    local usr="${3}"
    local baseDir="${4}"

    [ -d ${baseDir} ] && rm -rf ${baseDir}

    cmd="SELECT DISTINCT concat_ws ( '/', '${baseDir}', directory_name )
    FROM util_meta_data.objects
    WHERE directory_name IS NOT NULL ;"

    mkdir -p $(psql -t -A -U $usr -h ${hostName} -c "${cmd}" ${dbName})
}

# Dump the DDL for a database object
# NB that we append to the sql output files in order to support
# overloaded functions/procedures
function dump_object() {
    local hostName="${1}"
    local dbName="${2}"
    local usr="${3}"
    local oid="${4}"
    local fileName="${5}"

    cmdFile=$(mktemp -p . tmp.XXXXXXXXXX.out)

    cat <<EOT >$cmdFile

SET statement_timeout = 0 ;
SET client_encoding = 'UTF8' ;
SET standard_conforming_strings = on ;
SET check_function_bodies = true ;
SET client_min_messages = warning ;
SET search_path = ddlx, pg_catalog, public ;

\o | cat - >> $fileName

SELECT ddlx_create ( $oid ) ;

EOT

    psql -t -A -U $usr -h ${hostName} -f ${cmdFile} ${dbName} &>/dev/null

    rm ${cmdFile}
}

# Export the DDL for creating the database
function export_db_def() {
    local hostName="${1}"
    local dbName="${2}"
    local usr="${3}"
    local baseDir="${4}"

    outFile=$(mktemp -p . tmp.XXXXXXXXXX.out)
    cmd="SELECT oid,
        concat_ws ( '/', '${baseDir}', 'database.sql' )
    FROM pg_catalog.pg_database
    WHERE datname = 'bio_db' ; "

    psql -t -A -U $usr -h ${hostName} -c "${cmd}" -F ":" ${dbName} >${outFile}

    while read rec; do

        oid=$(echo $rec | cut -d ":" -f 1)
        fileName=$(echo $rec | cut -d ":" -f 2)

        dump_object ${hostName} ${dbName} ${usr} ${oid} ${fileName}

    done <${outFile}
    wait

    rm ${outFile}
}

# Export the DDL for creating the schemas
function export_schema_def() {
    local hostName="${1}"
    local dbName="${2}"
    local usr="${3}"
    local baseDir="${4}"

    outFile=$(mktemp -p . tmp.XXXXXXXXXX.out)
    cmd="SELECT mdo.schema_oid,
        concat_ws ( '/', '${baseDir}', mdo.directory_name, 'schema.sql' ),
        mdo.schema_name
    FROM util_meta_data.schemas mdo
    ORDER BY mdo.schema_name ; "

    psql -t -A -U $usr -h ${hostName} -c "${cmd}" -F ":" ${dbName} >${outFile}

    while read rec; do

        oid=$(echo $rec | cut -d ":" -f 1)
        fileName=$(echo $rec | cut -d ":" -f 2)

        dump_object ${hostName} ${dbName} ${usr} ${oid} ${fileName}

    done <${outFile}
    wait

    rm ${outFile}
}

# Export the DDL for the specified database
function export_db_ddl() {
    local hostName="${1}"
    local dbName="${2}"
    local usr="${3}"
    local baseDir="${4}"

    ensure_ddlx ${hostName} ${dbName} ${usr}

    init_db_dump ${hostName} ${dbName} ${usr} ${baseDir}

    export_db_def ${hostName} ${dbName} ${usr} ${baseDir}

    export_schema_def ${hostName} ${dbName} ${usr} ${baseDir}

    outFile=$(mktemp -p . tmp.XXXXXXXXXX.out)
    cmd="SELECT mdo.object_oid,
        concat_ws ( '/', '${baseDir}', mdo.directory_name, mdo.file_name )
    FROM util_meta_data.objects mdo
    WHERE mdo.file_name IS NOT NULL
    ORDER BY mdo.object_owner,
        mdo.object_type,
        mdo.object_owner,
        mdo.object_oid ; "

    psql -t -A -U $usr -h ${hostName} -c "${cmd}" -F ":" ${dbName} >${outFile}

    while read rec; do

        oid=$(echo $rec | cut -d ":" -f 1)
        fileName=$(echo $rec | cut -d ":" -f 2)

        dump_object ${hostName} ${dbName} ${usr} ${oid} ${fileName}

    done <${outFile}
    wait

    rm ${outFile}
}

locl_dir=$(hn2dn ${locl_host})/${locl_db}
devl_dir=$(hn2dn ${devl_host})/${devl_db}
test_dir=$(hn2dn ${test_host})/${test_db}
prod_dir=$(hn2dn ${prod_host})/${prod_db}

export_db_ddl ${locl_host} ${locl_db} ${locl_user} ${locl_dir}
export_db_ddl ${devl_host} ${devl_db} ${devl_user} ${devl_dir}
export_db_ddl ${test_host} ${test_db} ${test_user} ${test_dir}
export_db_ddl ${prod_host} ${prod_db} ${prod_user} ${prod_dir}

generate_report "${locl_dir}" "${devl_dir}"
generate_report "${devl_dir}" "${test_dir}"
generate_report "${test_dir}" "${prod_dir}"
3
  • Thanks a lot!!! But I don't dare to use it in our producing system, it says it in progress, and a binary plugin need to be installed. Thank you anyway!
    – Leon
    Jul 13, 2023 at 16:04
  • @Leon Not sure about the "binary plugin" bit-- as far as I can tell, the only thing that ends up in the database is from the ddlx.sql file and that's just sql and pl/pgsql. Barring installing the extension in a production system, perhaps perusing the ddlx.sql file can show you the query information you'd need to build your own.
    – gsiems
    Jul 13, 2023 at 16:23
  • Good idea!!! I will look in detail...
    – Leon
    Jul 13, 2023 at 16:24

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